The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving

Articles

Vol. 27, No. 2, October

The Digital Culture: Potential Effects on Creative and Higher Order Thinking
With changes in lifestyle brought on by innovations in digital technology, teachers, administrators, and parents are questioning the effect that these habits could have on a student's ability to focus. Teachers, especially, are faced with challenges...
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Tensions in Creative Products: Using the Value Square to Model Functional Creativity
INTRODUCTION Surveys of renowned consultancies such as Arthur D. Little, the Boston Consulting Group, McKinsey, Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC) and Strategy& (formerly Booz & Co.) continuously and consistently propose that there is a positive...
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The Influence of Cognitive Structure and Task Structure on Creativity in a Military Context
THE INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURE AND PERSONALITY ON CREATIVITY IN A MILITARY CONTEXT Like many organisations today, military forces face an ever-evolving stream of new challenges, and as a result, require their personnel to be adaptive and innovative....
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Creativity Research in Education from 2005-2015: A Systematic Review and Synthesis
Much attention surrounds the importance of teaching 21st century skills in schools (Zhao, 2009). Education is focused on developing these skills and competencies in order to produce a global workforce for the 21st century and retain the United States'...
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Teacher Self-Concepts of Creativity: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century Classroom
INTRODUCTION Around the world, national education bodies as well as individual schools are calling for a shift from "traditional" pedagogy and standardized testing to a more "creative" education paradigm (Beghetto & Kaufman, 2016; Beghetto,...
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Shifting the Organizational Mindset: Exploratory Evidence for the Positive Impact of Creativity Training and Strategic Planning
INTRODUCTION Current Trends: Creativity as a 21st Century Skill In January of 2016 the World Economic Forum held its annual meeting in DavosKlosters, Switzerland. Working under the theme of Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution members carefully...
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Vol. 27, No. 1, April

Expanding Opportunities for Creative Participation: A Systems-Based Approach to Creativity and Creative Problem Solving in Education
In a multi-purpose classroom within an urban arts museum, a small group of educators, funders, artists, and industry professionals find themselves charged with a peculiar task. Using only cardboard, masking tape, and rudimentary craft materials, they...
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An Art-Based Workshop for Families: Learning Emotion Skills and Choosing Creativity
Family is the primary context of socialization in which children form their first relationships, learn ways of thinking, and acquire skills (Halberstadt, 1986; Maccoby, 1992; Thompson & Meyer, 2007). Educational interventions are increasingly engaging...
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What Makes a Pencil a Pencil? Exploring the Roles of Working Memory and Intelligence in Creativity
Recent research has focused on creativity as a function of executive processing. This conceptual framework views creative cognition as individual differences in the ability of top-down processes to control attention and thought. This theory of creativity...
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Open Educational Methods and Divergent Thinking (DT): A Preliminary Study in an Italian Primary School
INTRODUCTION With our study, our intention is to reflect critically on the importance of Divergent Thinking (DT) in the Italian educational context. In various teaching experiences, it is possible to observe that DT, and creativity more in general,...
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Vol. 26, No. 2, October

Special Issue - Creativity in Engineering Education
Creativity has entered the limelight in society and is no longer seen as something that is reserved for artists or geniuses, but a key competence in a complex world, characterized by mega trends such as globalization or industry 4.0. Engineers are...
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The Dark Side of Engineering Creativity
THE DAWNING OF THE AGE OF ENGINEERING CREATIVITY The Sputnik Shock The successful launching of the first artificial earth satellite, Sputnik I, on October 4, 1957 was hailed as a victory for the then Soviet Union, and was greeted with horrified...
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Creating a Place to Bore or a Place to Explore? Investigating Possibilities to Foster Students' Creativity in the Manufacturing Engineering Lab
"Human creativity is the most spectacular transformative force ever unleashed, and it is something that all of us can draw on to one degree or another" (Florida, 2014, xvii). "There is no magic creativity formula to be learned. To become more creative,...
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Remote Experiment and Creativity
CHANGES IN CONVERGENT THINKING INTRODUCED BY REMOTE EXPERIMENTS Remote Experiment Model of Learning David Kolb (Kolb, 1984, Kane, Duda, Farrell, Jeffords, Kimsey, Rucinski, Simon & Zhong, 2013) referred to four types of processes associated...
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Designing Circuit Warz: Enhancing Teachers' and Students' Creativity through Problem-Based Games-Based Learning in the Computer Engineering Classroom
This paper explores the use of gamification and problem-based learning in an educational setting to increase student engagement and creativity. It offers an example of using game mechanics and problem-based learning to promote creative thinking while...
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Creativity versus Adaption: A Paradox in Higher Engineering Education
CREATIVITY The Importance of Being Creative "If there is a desire that goes beyond the limits of intelligibility within contemporary culture, then it would be of not wanting to be creative." (Reckwitz 2013, p. 9, translated by the authors) ...
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Ingenuity or the Emergence of Creativity: Some Theoretical Remarks
"Making patterns is a common feature of human creativity. Whether it is arranging flowers in a vase, decorating a cake, designing wallpaper, or playing a series of musical notes, we delight in making ordered and balanced compositions. The end result...
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Building Creativity into Engineering Education: Practical Strategies
As with many human traits, creativity is easily recognized in others (and sometimes oneself) but may elude a precise and cogent definition from the layperson. Those who study creativity, however, have variously described it as "a habit" and "an attitude...
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Vol. 26, No. 1, April

Down-to-Earth Creativity: Busting the Myths of Heaven-Sent Creativity
Scholars have been analyzing what is nowadays called "creativity" for more than two thousand years (see historical discussions in, for example Langsdorf, 1900; Tsanoff, 1949; Wittkower & Wittkower, 1963; Tatarkiewicz, 2011, pp. 245-265), and the...
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Effects of a "Learn to Think" Intervention Program on Chinese Primary School Students' Learning Strategies
Learning strategies have significant effects on student learning, which involves planning ahead, monitoring one's performance to identify sources of difficulty, estimating, revision and self-testing (Nisbet & Shucksmith, 1986). Better learners...
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Effect of Dialectical Bootstrapping on Quantitative Estimation
INTRODUCTION Estimation is assigning some value to attributes of an object or an event under the situation of incomplete information. Estimation plays an important role in human problem solving process, especially for real world problems. A typical...
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Creative Use of Visual Arts within Conflict Resolution
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE SURVEY The arts have become a central method of social inquiry and practice in the last decade as seen in visual culture, visual anthropology, arts-based research, community art, art therapy, and arts in social action...
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Teaching Emotion and Creativity Skills through Art: A Workshop for Adolescents
Adolescence is a time of self-discovery. Adolescence is the beginning of interest areas coming into focus and friendships becoming central to one's sense of self (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1980). This is also a time of immense opportunity for growth and...
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Intervening without Interfering: Supporting the Imaginative Play of Elementary School Girls
For children, pretend play serves many purposes. Pretend play, or fantasy play, can help children master difficult concepts (e.g. why parents go to work), let out aggression in an acceptable forum(e.g. play wrestling), experiment with complex emotional...
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Vol. 25, No. 2, October

The Realm of Make Believe and the Extension of Gameplay Space
Game Designers have an exceedingly difficult challenge. Their job is to create a set of game mechanics that anticipate the play style of their players. According to Rules of Play (2004), "As a game designer, you can never directly design play. You...
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Exploring the Role of Intuition in Creative Problem Solving
Intuition is reported to have played a critical role in the working lives of many professional 'creatives' (Policastro, 1995). However, despite these reports, surprisingly little research has been conducted into the role, and potential application,...
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Creativity, Emotion, and Art: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Workshop for Professional Adults
The links between emotions, creativity and the arts are numerous. Art evokes a variety of emotions (Silvia, 2005, 2009). Emotions can influence both the creative process and the way we interact with art, and can be both beneficial and detrimental to...
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Teaching Emotion and Creativity Skills through Art: A Workshop for Children
Emotions and creativity have a complex relationship; whether emotions help or hinder the creative process depends on one's emotional skill. Deciding to be creative and different can take courage or evoke anxiety, and thinking of new ideas can bring...
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The Art Bias within the Arts: Creativity in the Field of Not-for-Profit Theatre Management
"In many [arts management academic training] programs and in many organizations to be identified as an administrator means that you are not an artist--you're not somebody who thinks of herself or himself as having an artistic sensibility. Worse, I...
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Vol. 25, No. 1, April

Prospects for a Literally Universal Science of Aesthetics and Creativity
PROLOGUE: SAGAN VS. GOMBRICH When I was a child, astronomer Carl Sagan (November 9, 1934--December 20, 1996) was my hero. More than anyone else, he influenced my decision to become a scientist. Later, additional figures closer to my research areas...
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Examining the Relationship between Mental Health, Creative Thought, and Optimism
Creative thought and/or behaviour is characterised by both novelty and usefulness (Feist, 1998) and the relationship between mental health and creativity has been examined by researchers in the past (e.g., Cropley, 1990; Kaufman, 2014; Nettle, 2006)....
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Culture Makes the Differences: The "Creativity-Schizotypy" Association Varies between Germans and Russians
Creativity is a topic of wide scope that is important at both the individual and societal level. According to Sternberg (2006), creativity can be understood as a confluence of personal (intellectual abilities, personality, motivation) and environmental...
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Developing Creative Thinking among Design Students: A Case Study of Hong Kong
INTRODUCTION Knowledge acquisition and memorisation are no longer the ultimate goal of education. In the past, students were asked to dictate vocabularies and recite paragraphs, and there was only one model answer in examinations. The elements of...
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Vol. 24, No. 2, October

Fighting the Slump: A Multi-Faceted Exercise for Fostering Creativity in Children
The notion that creativity is not a fixed, inborn trait--available only to a select few and not to others--is widely accepted by many researchers in the field. Torrance (1972) was adamant that creativity can be taught, while Sternberg (2007) characterizes...
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Editorial for IJCPS, October 2014
Welcome to this edition of the journal, and my first as co-editor alongside James Kaufman. I am very pleased to have been invited to take on this role with James. The IJCPS has often struck me as a journal that punches above its weight in terms...
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Postal Addresses as an Assay of Cultural Cognition.
There are two major types of postal addressing styles in the world. In the United States, Canada and most other Western countries, postal addresses start with the most specific geographical entity and progress up to larger ones (e.g., Dallas, Texas)....
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Children's Misinterpretation of Today's Designs: A Case Study of How Children Interpret Registered Safety Signs
INTRODUCTION Most designs are created from the perspective of the designer and that designer is usually an adult. However, it is questionable whether designs intended for children are able to meet children's needs, as adult designers may conceive...
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Using a Creativity Model to Solve the Place-Value Problem in Kindergarten
INTRODUCTION The term place-value is self explanatory. The placement of each digit in a multi-digit number determines the number's place value. In a two-digit number, the values of the two places are tens and ones, with the tens represented by the...
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Ambivalent Emotional States: The Underlying Source of All Creativity?
Researchers have uncovered a diversity of practices and policies that foster creativity (Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham, 2004). For example, when individuals widen their eyes (Friedman, Fishbach, Forster, & Werth, 2003), imagine romantic episodes...
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What Can We Know about the Creative Potentials of Teachers and Students? What Can We Hope for in Terms of the Cultivation of Creativity?
The value of creativity in human life has always been embraced, with increasing attention also being paid to its cultivation in younger generations in contemporary societies. Nonetheless, creativity is a notoriously elusive and evasive concept for...
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Vol. 24, No. 1, April

An Interview with Arthur Cropley
1) Arthur, you have been involved with creativity, giftedness, and lifelong learning, well, a long time. How do you maintain your interest and zest? I myself am amazed that I have published so much since retiring in 1998--more than in any similar...
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An Interview with Gale Roid: On Assessment Issues
1) Who or what inspired you to venture into the fields of psychological assessment and Educational measurement? There are three things that I recall as very important for me. First of all, in my experience at Harvard University as an undergraduate,...
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An Interview with Gerald Cupchik: Art, Beauty, Emotions and Aesthetics
1) How should we examine emotion--in light of cognition, visual arts, musical arts, or perhaps even theatre? There are many different ways to approach this question. Following William James, we can distinguish between "coarse" emotions like happiness...
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An Interview with Jeff and Lisa Smith: Issues in Assessment
Jeff Smith is a professor of education at the University of Otago, on the South Island of New Zealand. He studies art, aesthetics, learning in museums, and school assessment. He was formerly at Rutgers University, and spent 20 years as Head of the...
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An Interview with John Baer: Thinking Critically about Creativity
1) John, let's take a long hard look at the field of creativity over the past 20,30, 40 years- what is your assessment of the current state of the art of creativity and what have been the high points over the past 40 years? Creativity research has...
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An Interview with Rupert Wegerif
1) First of all, could you tell us a bit about yourself, your education, and what you are currently researching? Hi Michael, as I am sure you realize that is quite a difficult question. Telling others 'a bit about yourself means choosing the most...
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An Interview with Keith Sawyer on Creativity
1) What research are you currently working on? I am currently engaged in an intensive study of two professional schools of art and design: The Savannah College of Art and Design, and the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts at Washington University...
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An Interview with Shelley Carson: Creativity and It's Relatives
1) In seven days, most people can increase their imagination and innovation. What can they do in a seven times seven times span? Imagination and innovation are abilities that all humans share. Many people ignore these abilities or have been taught...
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Vol. 23, No. 2, October

Culture, Ambiguity Aversion and Choice in Probability Judgments
Many recent cross-cultural studies have showed cultural differences in cognition between Westerners and Easterners. Nisbett and colleagues (Nisbett, 2003; Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001) have offered a model of two distinct modes of cognitive...
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A Novel's Structure as a Complex System
INTRODUCTION The answer of the question "How complex is it?" is a discussed significant point in the study of complex systems. A general answer is that the complexity of a system is the amount of information required to describe it (see Chaitin,...
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College Students' General Creativity as a Predictor of Cognitive Risk Tolerance
INTRODUCTION Creativity or "general creativity" is a preference for thinking in new ways with the ability to produce novel and appropriate work, which requires boldness and imagination (Charyton, 2008). Environmental factors, such as educational...
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Evaluating the Impacts of Destination ImagiNation on the Creative Problem Solving Skills of Middle School Students
Questions surrounding the effectiveness of creativity enhancement programs on the students who participate in them have long been of interest to researchers and educators, including those who advocate incorporating them into programs for gifted students...
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Researching and Analysing Young Children's Thinking Competence through Informal Conversations and Cognitive Process Mapping
INTRODUCTION The importance of and the need for teaching thinking skills have been well articulated in research and literature (Barak & Dori, 2009; Fisher, 2003; Hipkins, 2006; McGuinness, 1999; Murdoch & Wilson, 2008; Ong & Borich,...
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Backup Plans and Creative Problem-Solving: Effects of Causal, Error, and Resource Processing
Creativity, the generation of new ideas, and innovation, the translation of these ideas into viable products or services, are complex, unusually complex, phenomena (Mumford & Gustafson, 1988, 2012). In keeping with this observation, creativity...
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Playing at Work: Professionals' Conceptions of the Functions of Play on Organizational Creativity
Organizational leaders report that creativity is the most crucial factor for success in today's innovation-based economy (IBM, 2010). Mirroring this emphasis on workplace creativity, research on the creativity process has shifted from a focus on individuals...
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Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Creative Ability: Relationships with Academic Risk-Taking and Academic Stress
The impetus for the present study came from the work of Dweck and her colleagues (e.g., Dweck, 1986; Molden & Dweck, 2006) who have provided abundant evidence that motivation to engage in and persist at tasks is related to how students view their...
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Vol. 23, No. 1, April

Psychometric and Self-Rated Creativity of Polish Managers: Are Implicit Theories of Creativity Relevant to Self-Assessment?
Creativity is usually defined from the four-P perspective, namely, focusing on person, process, product and place (Rhodes, 1961). This study focuses on the aspect of person, one's creative actual potential and one's self-perception of that potential,...
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Matricide and Creativity: The Case of Two Hungarian Cousin-Writers from the Perspective of Contemporary Psychobiography
ARTISTIC VS SCIENTIFIC CREATIVITY By the 19th century, artistic creation became one of the most important expressions of "selfhood" and human freedom; from Romanticism onwards we can talk about the cult of creativity (Baumeister, 1987). At the same...
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Naive Theories of Creativity and Sociocultural Factors Revisited. the Potential Explanatory Role of Creative Self-Efficacy and Creative Personal Identity
Historically, the creative personality had a hard time fitting not only in social settings, but also in theories, both in lay and expert ones. The ways in which people conceptualize the creative process and the creative personality represent an interesting...
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The Selective Problem Solving Model (SPS) and Its Social Validity in Solving Mathematical Problems
Problem solving is an all-day and all-life struggle of humankind. We confront easy problems, difficult problems and never-solved problems. That is, we face a continuum of problems in our life. As the type of problem varies, the way we approach problems...
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Educator of Creativity on Polish Job Market-The Analysis of Professional Experiences of Psychopedagogy of Creativity Graduates
One of the four strategic objectives ('ET 2020') for the European cooperation in education and training is increasing creativity and innovation (The Council of The European Union, 2009) as well as developing entrepreneurship and sense of initiative,...
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Implicit Individualism in Teachers' Theories of Creativity: Through the "Four P's" Looking Glass
Implicit theories of creativity include constructions of people derived from their belief systems about creativity (Sternberg, 1985). They include people's beliefs about creative activity and inclinations, the ability to integrate ideas in new ways,...
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Western Model of Creativity: Generalizability and Hypothetical Educational Consequences for the "Non-Western World"
Culture plays an important role in the way people perceive reality (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The perception of creativity is also culturally determined (Lubart, 1990; Rudowicz, 2003). Within the frame widely defined as "the Western culture"--individualistic,...
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Joining the Debate: Creativity Seen from Eastern and Central Europe
There is a general consensus nowadays in both academia and different sectors of society that creativity is an important topic. There is also a belief, at least among psychologists, that creativity can and should be studied with the theoretical and...
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Vol. 22, No. 2, October

Creative Leisure and Self-Expression
The field of creativity has increasingly focused attention on everyday or personal creativity, the study of non-eminent forms of creative process and accomplishment in people's day-to-day lives (Runco, 2007; Ivcevic, 2007; Richards, 2010). Similarly,...
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The Dark Side of Creativity
Book Review: The Dark Side of Creativity Edited by David H. Cropley, Arthur J. Cropley, James C. Kaufman, and Mark A. Runco. 2010 The most potent stereotypes in the study of creativity and innovation involve negative aspects of personality and...
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An Interview with Jerome and Dorothy Singer: Pioneers of Imagination
Dorothy G. Singer Ed. D., Teachers College, Columbia University, is retired Senior Research Scientist, Department of Psychology, Yale University. Dr. Singer is also Co-Director of the Yale University Family Television Research and Consultation Center...
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What's Your Major? College Majors as Markers of Creativity
If nothing else, creativity research is diverse: there are many conceptions of creativity and many approaches to assessing it, such as assessing aspects of the creative process, creative products, or the creative person (Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer,...
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Combinatorial Creativity and Sightedness: Monte Carlo Simulations Using Three-Criterion Definitions
Researchers have often argued that creativity ultimately depends on a combinatorial process (Simonton, 2004; Thagard, 2012; see also Hadamard, 1945; James, 1880; Mednick, 1962). In rough terms, new ideas emerge from the recombination of old ideas....
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Generality and Specificity: Malaysian Undergraduate Students' Self-Reported Creativity
Creativity is one of the critical abilities for success (Althuizen, Wierenga, & Rossiter, 2010; Kerr & Gagliardi, 2003). Broadly speaking, creativity is the capability to generate works (e.g., ideas, solutions) that are new and potentially...
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Evaluation of the Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI)
The Future Problem Solving Program has served thousands of students worldwide for nearly four decades. Torrance, Bruch, and Torrance (1976, p. 119) described their early efforts as creating "interscholastic creative problem-solving," or "creative problem-solving...
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Relationships between Creative Thinking and Problem Solving Styles among Secondary School Students
There is an ongoing inquiry and discussion relating to the "level and style" distinction in creativity assessment (e.g., Isaksen, 1987, 2004; Isaksen & Dorval, 1993; Kirton, 1987, 1989, 1994, 2003). Isaksen (2004) emphasized that distinguishing...
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Vol. 22, No. 1, April

A Creative Approach to Exploring Student Identity
INTRODUCTION The development of motivation and self-esteem is strongly related to envisioning the future self. For adolescents this involves experimenting with various possible selves without a sense of permanence or expectation. However, higher...
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Creativity and Education: An Australian Perspective
Recent policy discussions of creativity and education in Australia such as the Australia 2020 Summit (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008), the Creative Connection Program (Western Australia Department of Culture and the Arts, 2010). the Melbourne Declaration...
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Special Issue-Applied Creativity and Problem-Solving in Australia
I am very pleased to have the opportunity to present five papers in this special issue of the International Journal of Creativity and Problem-Solving. In calling for submissions for this special issue, I was responding to James C. Kaufman's invitation...
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Constraining and Enabling Creativity: The Theoretical Ideas Surrounding Creativity, Agency and Structure
INTRODUCTION If, as much of the research literature concerned with creativity appears to be indicating (for summaries see Zolberg 1990, Sternberg 1999, Negus and Pickering 2004, Pope 2005, Sawyer 2006, Alexander 2006, Hennessy and Amabile 2010,...
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'When the Book Takes Over': Creativity, the Writing Process and Flow in Australian Fiction Writing
INTRODUCTION This paper represents a small part of a larger study using Csikszentmihalyi's (1997a) systems models of creativity to explore creativity in Australian fiction writing (Paton, 2009a; 2009b; 2010; 2011; in press). This systems model,...
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An Interdisciplinary Vision for Creativity and Creative Problem Solving: A Health Science Perspective in Regional Australia
THE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF CREATIVITY AND HEALTH Creativity is a complex phenomenon that has received little attention within health science apart from discussion of an apparent link with psychopathology. Despite the wealth of anecdotal and...
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