History Review

This journal covers international historical events, people in power and those involved in social movements.

Articles from No. 65, December

African Americans after the Civil War: John Spiller Surveys Race Relations in the United States during Reconstruction and Constructs a Balance Sheet
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Introduction Before 1861 the vast majority of African Americans bad been slaves and had no legal rights of which to speak. The formal abolition of slavery in 1865 was clearly a landmark in the progress of black Americans,...
History at Huddersfield: Lindsay Pollick Shares Her Experiences and Her Enthusiasm
Huddersfield University was sixth choice on my UCAS form in November 2000, behind courses at Sheffield and elsewhere, I simply hadn't considered it seriously, despite living on the outskirts of the town. Yet I chose to study there, even though I received...
How Far Was the Risorgimento Led by a Desire to Create Cultural Unity? Emily Parton Asks a Key Question about Italian Unification
The question of whether cultural unity was the driving force behind the Risorgimento has been debated since the movement culminated in the 1861 unification of Italy. The question of what constitutes cultural unity has also been controversial. In context...
Napoleon at War: Secrets of Success, Seeds of Failure? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controverisal Reputation of Napoleon Bonaparte as a Military Commander
Even at a distance of two centuries, the extraordinary military career of Napoleon Bonaparte exerts a great fascination. His campaigns continue to be studied as exemplars in army staff colleges. The flood of academic and popular books and articles...
Neville Chamberlain and Appeasement: Nick Smart Scrutinises Chamberlain's Foreign Policy and the Historiography of Appeasement
Chamberlain's Centrality Appeasement, the word can be found in any dictionary. It is a noun form of the verb to appease, which means to placate or pacify, and is a perfectly good word for the not ignoble, and certainly not un-Christian, desire to...
The 'Big Four'-Peacemaking in Paris in 1919: Alan Sharp Takes a Flesh Look at the Statesmen Responsible for the Treaty of Versailles
In December 1919 John Maynard Keynes published The Economic Consequences of the Peace, a book which, for the next 90 years, established the framework for much of the discussion about the Paris Peace Conference after the First World War. In early June...
The 'Chief Business': The Spanish Armada, 1588: Patrick Williams Provides Us with the Results of the Latest Rsearch on the Armada
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In May 1588, Philip II of Spain sent his 'Invincible Armada' to overthrow Elizabeth I, the lawful queen of England. In despatching his great fleet, Philip broke not only with his own reputation as 'the Prudent King' but also...
The Foreign Policies of Hitler and Mussolini: Russel Tarr Sees Similarities but Also Important Contrasts in the Foreign Policies of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Introduction To the casual observer, Mussolini and Hitler are something of a diabolical double act: aggressive right-wing dictators who rose to power in similar circumstances, shared a similar ideology, fought side by side...
'The Medium and the Message': Evangelical Propaganda and the German Reformation: Simon Lemieux Examines Examples of German Protestant Propaganda
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED] In 1964, the Canadian academic Marshall McLuhan coined the phrase 'The Medium is the Message'. By this he meant that the form of the medium (be it written, visual etc) embeds itself in the message, and that one has to study the...
Web 2.0 in the History Classrooom: Russel Tarr Updates Us on the Latest ICT Developments
Over the course of the last year a number of outstanding websites have been developed which have real potential for use in the history classroom. Here I will focus on three broad categories of web applications: tools to develop historical knowledge,...