UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Articles

Vol. 22, No. 1, 2018

An Exploratory Study into the Money Laundering Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Controls within the UK Bookmaker Sector, with A Specific Focus on Fixed-Odds Betting Terminals
IntroductionThis qualitative study sought to explore the money laundering threats, lnerabilities and controls that exist within the UK bookmaker sector, with a direct :us on the Fixed-Odds Betting Terminals (FOBT) that can be found in over 8000 gh street...
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Golden Arm: A Probabilistic Study of Dice Control in Craps
IntroductionCraps is a unique casino game because the shooter directly affects (i.e., picks up and throws) the gambling instruments (dice). Craps players, more than other casino gamblers, may be the most susceptible to Langer's (1975) illusion of control...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, 2017

Foreign Exchange Rate Effect on International Gaming Demand: An Examination from an Upscale Las Vegas Casino
IntroductionInternational visitors make up a significant proportion of total visitor volume in Las Vegas. Between 2011 and 2015, international visitors comprised approximately 20% of the Las Vegas visitor profile (Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority...
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Vol. 20, No. 2, 2016

Conjoining the Concepts of Visitor Attitude and Place Image to Better Understand Casino Patrons' Behavioral Intentions
IntroductionBoth the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the cognitive-affective-conative place image model (CAC) have been broadly applied in analyzing visit motivation and behavioral intention in the field of tourism and hospitality studies. Apart...
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Comparing Loyalty Program Tiering Strategies: An Investigation from the Gaming Industry
IntroductionLas Vegas is an internationally renowned city for gambling, fine dining, entertainment, and shopping. After enduring a deep drain during the economic recession, the local gaming industry managed to recover in 2010, with increases in both...
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How the Great Recession Affected Casino Staffing in Nevada Casinos
IntroductionShareholder wealth maximization is the main goal of many firm managers in the United States (Fatemi, Ang, & Chua, 1983). Many companies, both public and private, have company mission statements in which they state shareholder wealth maximization...
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Identifying Opportunities to Inform and Inspire: Tribal Casino Employee Perceptions of Tribal Self Sufficiency and Philanthropy
Negative societal reactions to casino expansions and gaming activities are often led by citizens who consider gambling to be a controversial form of (state and tribal) government revenue generation (Kindt, 2009; Gordon, 2010; Walker, 2012). As a privilege...
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Play the Cards, Roll the Dice - the Integration of Casinos within Asian Tourism Destination Development Strategy
IntroductionIn March 2016, the government of the Republic of Cyprus announced three preferred casino companies to bid on a single casino project on the Greek portion of the island. While the Turkish-controlled north had casinos for some years, the on-going...
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Vol. 20, No. 1, 2016

Erving Goffman's Las Vegas: From Jungle to Boardroom
Sociologist Erving Goffman's presence in Las Vegas never yielded a definitive publication. Though it informed his work about action and interaction, his time in Las Vegas-both as a blackjack dealer and a player-remains one of the great what-ifs of gambling...
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Las Vegas as a Symbol: Goffman and Competing Narratives of Sin City
Dmitri Shalin has demonstrated the importance of Erving Goffman to the field of sociology, and in this case to the sociology of Las Vegas as a gambling, resort, and urban center. But Goffman also was part of a trend, or more accurately what became a...
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Goffman, Action, and Risk Society: Aesthetic Reflexivity in Late Modernity
When I decided to write about edgework over twenty-five years ago, I had no idea that I had put myself on a pathway of sustained engagement with one of the most important sociologists of the twentieth century. As an academic sociologist in the early...
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Can We Scale Up Goffman? from Vegas to the World Stage
IntroductionIt is an all-too-common lament among sociologists that Erving Goffman, though his writings remain widely read and respected today, failed to spawn an ongoing and cohesive research tradition. His idiosyncratic methods of data collection, the...
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The Evolution of the Concept of Social Action: Parsons and Goffman
Goffman as ReaderErving Goffman is widely thought of as an ethnographic symbolic interactionist. In addition, he is institutionally recognized as a sociological theorist whose work is required reading in every undergraduate and graduate sociological...
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Doubling Down on Goffman: A Commentary on Dmitri Shalin's 'Erving Goffman, Fateful Action, and the Las Vegas Gambling Scene'
Goffman: A Gambling SociologistErving Goffman "was not a sociologist of any particular area" (Scheff2006: 20). He was, in fact, a sociologist of many areas: the interaction order, stigma, "total institutions," gender, "forms of talk," public behaviour...
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Erving Goffman, Fateful Action, and the Las Vegas Gambling Scene
Let me show character once, and I will change my fate over night. Character is what matters the most.DostoyevskyWhen you lose your money, you lose nothing.When you lose your health, you lose something.When you lose your character, you lose everything.Meyer...
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Vol. 19, No. 2, 2015

A Brave New World of Ambient Intelligence in the Casinos of Macau: Reality or Fiction?
Brief description of the issue of "intelligent ambient" in the casinos of Special Administrative Region of Macau (SARM)The concept of intelligent ambient or IAm1 (from the English Ambient Intelligence)2 represents a digital and pervasive ambient created...
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The Perceptions of Macao Undergraduates regarding Help Websites for Problem Gambling
IntroductionMany young people are increasingly engaged in gambling (Welte et al., 2008). A survey conducted in Macao in 2013 showed that the gambling participation rate for those in the 22 to 29 age group was around 49 percent (ISCG, 2014). Another survey,...
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Becoming Respectable: A History of Early Social Responsibility in the Las Vegas Casino Industry
Each year, millions of visitors to Las Vegas, NV drive, ride, or walk past a Catholic church located at 302 Cathedral Way, in the shadow of the Encore hotel-casino. For many, the church's brightly colored façade seems to pale in comparison to the towers...
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An Examination of Sport Fans' Perceptions of the Impact of the Legalization of Sport Wagering on Their Fan Experience
Summarizing the powerful relationship between sport fandom and gambling, Wann, Melnick, Russell, and Pease (2001) concluded that "Sport consumption and gambling go hand in hand" (p. 37). Indeed, figures for sport wagering can be staggering. For instance,...
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Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring

Examining the Impact of Competition on Casino Revenues and Prices in the Mid-Atlantic States
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionSince 1963, when New Hampshire enacted the first lottery legislation, states have been rushing to tap into the new source of tax revenues. The first wave of legislation by states was to enact state-run...
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Predicting Cross-Gaming Propensity Using E-CHAID Analysis
IntroductionData Mining in the Gaming IndustryAs more countries and regions are considering legalizing and/or expanding gaming in their respective markets, many casinos in the global casino market are facing increased competition in player acquisition...
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eCommerce Market Convergence in Action: Social Casinos and Real Money Gambling
AbstractOnline social casinos and real-money gambling industries, including gambling at online and live venues (such as casino resorts), are quickly converging (H2 Gambling Capital & Odobo, 2013). Using data collected from 339 online real money gamblers,...
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Mathematical Models of Games of Chance: Epistemological Taxonomy and Potential in Problem Gambling Research
IntroductionWhat is the current place of mathematics in problem gambling research, and how can mathematics contribute toward minimizing the harmful effects of excessive gambling? In this paper, I answer the first question; then I draw upon the main principles...
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Chopsticks and Gambling
Book Review: Chopsticks and Gambling, by Desmond Lam, Ph.D. Desmond Lam. Chopsticks and Gambling. Transaction Publishers, 2014. 172pp. (Cloth) ISBN 978-4128-5393-4This is a great concise introduction to Chinese views of gambling, including the history...
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A Checklist: Questions That New Gaming Jurisdictions Need to Consider in Adopting Gaming Laws and Regulations
Commercial lawyers often use checklists on particular transactions to make sure that they are covering all the points necessary to achieve the best and most comprehensive contract for their client. These checklists are not model contracts, nor do they...
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Vol. 18, No. 2, 2014

Cross-Border Competition and the Recession Effect on Atlantic City's Gaming Volumes
AbstractAtlantic City casinos were hit by both the 2007-2009 recession and the addition of legalized gaming in Pennsylvania at about the same time. Results of this study show a significant decrease of $422.9 million in monthly slot coin-in for Atlantic...
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Social and Economic Changes on American Indian Reservations in California: An Examination of Twenty Years of Tribal Government Gaming1
IntroductionWhen the Indian Gaining Regulatory Act (IGRA) was being debated in Congress one of the most controversial points was the role, if any, for state regulation of tribal government gaming. Tribal governments were so opposed to Congressional imposition...
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Are Canadian First Nations Casinos Providing Maximum Benefits? Appraising First Nations Casinos in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, 2006-2010(1)
AbstractTo date a dearth of data has made it difficult to evaluate the success of First Nations casinos in Canada. This paper helps remedy this situation by presenting a three-province overview (Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta) of First Nations gaming...
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Exploring the Relationship between Race and Sports Book Wagering Activity and Daily Slot and Table Game Play
AbstractUsing performance data from three Las Vegas hotel-casinos, time series regression models were employed to better understand the relationship between race and sports book wagering volumes, and slot and table game play. Variables representing both...
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Licensing VIP-Room Contractors or Gaming Promoters in Macao: The Status Quo and Improvement
IntroductionMacao is a traditional gaining city with more than 160 years of legalized gaming, and it was under the Portuguese colonial rule that Macao began to develop the industry. The transfer of sovereignty in 1999 to China, where gambling is strictly...
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The Process of Applying for a License in a New Gaming Jurisdiction: Do's and Don'ts
Editors' 'Note:Each fall, we host an Executive Development Program (EDP) in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, where roughly 50 eager attendees learn from the brightest minds in the global gaming world. EDP was founded by the late Dr. Bill Eadington, who left us with...
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Vol. 18, No. 1, 2014

Games of Life and Death: The Judicial Uses of Dice in Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Sweden
AbstrActGambling studies should take a broad view of the field and consider activities that are not strictly gambling but similar to it, such as cleromancy and secular uses of drawing of lots, to give us perspective on societal and cultural aspects of...
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Diffusion and Learning: Twenty Years of Sports Betting Culture in Finland
IntroductionA novice sports bettor's challenge in Finland twenty years ago was to find information about one new game, which hadjust been introduced to Finnish consumers. Now the challenge is to manage a flood of information about a growing variety of...
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Gravity Models and Casino Gaming: A Review, Critique, and Modification
AbstractGravity models have been widely used in expanded gaming debates to persuade investors that proposed casinos will be financially successful and to persuade state and local government officials, as well as a skeptical public, of the economic and...
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Eyes on Casino Gaming in China: Residents' Attitudes towards Precasino Development in Sanya
AbstractWhile Macau offers world class casinos, casino gaming is not legalized in Mainland China. Current media reports, however, indicate a growing interest by the Chinese government in establishing casinos in the Hainan Province. This study assesses...
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What Every U.S. Casino and Card Club Must Know about Compliance with the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) Regulations
I. IntroductionU.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC") administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on United States ("U.S.") foreign policy and national security goals. These sanctions are imposed upon...
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Vol. 17, No. 2, 2013

A Normative Analysis of Gambling Tax Policy
AbstractThis article surveys the application of normative tax theory to gambling tax policy. The analysis suggests that fixed license based taxes may be preferable to taxes on gross gaming revenue. Where output based taxes are used, the types of gambling...
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Building the First Gaming Master's Program: An Industry Perspective1
IntroductionSince the early 1990s, casino gaming has become one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the United States (Walker, 2007). With the emergence of mega-casinos with hotels, shopping, restaurants, shows, and conventions, most casinos...
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Impact of the 2003 Illinois Gaming Tax Rate Increase on Marketing Spending
AbstractThe purpose of this research is to investigate a potential consequence related to the 2003 Illinois Gaming Tax rate restructuring. Specifically, did the assessment of a higher gaming tax rate in the state of Illinois negatively impact promotional...
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Casino Games and the Central Limit Theorem1
AbstractThe central limit theorem, in simple terms, states that the probability distribution of the mean of a random sample, for most probability distributions, can be approximated by a normal distribution when the number of observations in the sample...
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Mapping the Online Gambling E-Servicescape: A Conceptual Model
AbstractA conceptual model is proposed that examines the potential influence of an online casino's atmospheric cues and functional qualities on consumerbehavioral response. A stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model, often used to frame other servicescape...
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Report on the 15th International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking*
For many, the 15th International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking was more than a gaming conference, it was the fifteenth gathering of The Eadington Clan, those students, industry colleagues, friends, and admirer's of its intellectual and spiritual...
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How the Mob (Museum) Was Won: Building a History of Organized Crime in the U.S
Few places are as image-conscious as Las Vegas, making it an object lesson for other places with legal gambling and an emphasis on tourism. Not only does Las Vegas sculpt its image - after all, what happens here, stays here, except for what appears in...
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Vol. 17, No. 1, 2013

The Finance and Marketing Dilemma: Do Promotional Allowances Actually Increase Revenue and Profits for Atlantic City Casinos?
AbstractCasinos offer free items to attract new guests or to reward their loyal customers. Casino management and marketing personnel believe these promotional allowances are necessary to maintain customers and to increase revenue. Three regression models...
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Economic Evidence on the Effects of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act on Indians and Non-Indians
IntroductionThe history of United States policy displays a pattern of great swings between the federal government's support for the self-determination of American Indian governments and its attempts to dissolve or suppress it. While the 1970's ushered...
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A Diagnosis of Inherent Problems in Enhancing Service Quality through Internal Marketing and Organizational Identification in Macau and Singapore Casinos
AbstractWith spectacular growth in demand since opening the market to foreign competition, executives within the Macau casino industry have focused their attention on enhancing capacity and opening new casino properties. Meanwhile, the Singapore casino...
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Examining the Link between Poker Room Business Volume and Gaming Activity in Slot and Table Games: A Closer Look at a Key Assumption in the Full Service Theory
AbstractResults from three different Nevada hotel-casinos failed to support the popular notion that poker rooms drive business to the slot and table game areas of the casino floor. This result not only questions the validity of a key and somewhat bold...
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How Bill Eadington Changed Our Lives
Since Bill Eadington's death in February, we've come to appreciate just how influential a figure he is in today's gaming studies world. Hundreds of academics, regulators, and gaming industry professionals have shared their stories of "How Bill Eadington...
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Vol. 16, No. 2, 2012

William R. Eadington and the Economics of Gambling
"If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants"-Isaac NewtonIntroductionAs any reader of this Journal knows, gambling research is a relatively young field. The economics of gambling (or gaming), as a sub-field, has really taken off...
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The Systematic Study of Gaming Operations
"Bill Eadington's efforts to build a sound foundation for public policy decisions on commercial gaming have been pioneering, tireless, and immensely fruitful. His datadriven approach to the study of casinos' effects on communities and economies has contributed...
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Influencing International Foundations for Legalization, Policy and Commercial Gambling: A Tribute to William Eadington's International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking
IntroductionThroughout history, gambling in its various guises has fluctuated from widespread popularity to social opprobrium and suppression. Following the temperance movement and prohibition in the USA in the early 1900s, gambling became relegated...
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Tributes to the International Conference on Gambling and Risk-Taking
I initially encountered problem gambling in 1979 when I was invited to sit in on the first Gamblers Anonymous meetings in New Zealand. I was there to help the group forge links with mental health providers and to raise public and professional awareness...
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Reflections: Insights from Studying Gambling in Its Era of Change: What the Past 43 Years Have Been About
I have been given quite a charge for this presentation. After thinking about it for considerable time, I have decided there is no way I can separate the personal from the professional dimensions of my time over the past 43, going on 44, years. Therefore...
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A History of the International Conference on Gambling and Risk-Taking
"The study of gambling is fascinating, perhaps because it is so easy to relate it to parallels in areas of our everyday lives. But the surface has only been scratched; many questions remain to be satisfactorily answered."-Preface to Gambling and Society...
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Vol. 16, No. 1, 2012

The Gaming World Turns
As always, six months has passed since our last issue, but this time it feels like more has changed - or "turned," perhaps. Here in the United States, the Department of Justice issued an important (if cryptic) interpretation of an old act that long flummoxed...
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The Market for Online Poker
AbstractThe recent events of the "Black Friday" - the biggest online poker networks in the USA were shut down - demonstrated the necessity to make decisions about the regulation of online poker. But although online poker is a gold mine of data, until...
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Pennsylvania Casinos' Cannibalization of Regional Gambling Revenues
AbstractGambling opportunities are expanding rapidly in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic area. Fifteen gambling venues have opened since 1996. The introduction of these venues has the potential to shift the balance of gambling activity away from New Jersey, which...
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The EVF Model: A Novel Framework for Understanding Gambling and, by Extension, Poker
AbstractThere are several senses in which the term gambling is used. All have liabilities, problems that have muddied the waters in scientific research, generated conflicting legal decisions, compromised debates over ethical and moral issues, and have...
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Cultural Indicators of Internet Sports Betting Policy
IntroductionThe academic study of online gambling is a relatively new field. The first occurrence of money being wagered using the Internet dates back only 16 years, and research in the field has only been actively conducted for about the past decade...
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The Boomerang Effect
Asia's casino industry growth can "fly back" to benefit Las VegasBoomerangs are an interesting invention. These remarkable devices can be thrown into the sky, for long distances, and then they do something amazing: they fly back to the thrower. Metaphorically...
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Regulating Gaming in the New South Africa
IntroductionDuring its seventeen years under a democratic constitution, South Africa has been able to build a strong gambling regulatory regime. Prior to this period, as with many parts of the world, gambling was not nationally or rigorously regulated....
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