Military Review

Professional military journal (English, Spanish and Portuguese).

Articles from Vol. 90, No. 5, September-October

A Practical Approach to Cultural Insight
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] THIS ARTICLE PROPOSES a simple model to help understand a culture-any culture. Though more than a checklist, it cannot substitute for detailed study of a language or cultural immersion. Neither will it provide any solutions....
At What Cost, Intelligence? A Case Study of the Consequences of Ethical [and Unethical] Leadership
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] We must remember who we are. Our example is what will cause us to prevail in this environment, not our weapons. --Major General Martin Dempsey, commander, 1st Armored Division, 30 October 2003, email to his brigade commanders...
Automatic Ethics: What We Take for Granted Matters
IN NEARLY EVERY decision we make or action we take throughout the course of the day, we rely upon a vast set of assumptions that we take for granted. When visiting a new grocery store, we can assume the milk will be in the dairy case. We also expect...
Black Hearts: A Study in Leadership
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] AT THE VORTEX of Jim Frederick's Black Hearts: One Platoon s Decent into Madness in Iraq S Triangle of Death (Harmony Books, New York, 2009) is a gripping account of a single incident involving some of the most despicable...
Competency vs. Character? It Must Be Both!
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Competence without character is perversion and our greatest threat. --Dr. James Toner (1) ENVISION AN ARMY where Soldiers never sit through classes and stacks of PowerPoint slides on ethics and leadership. Imagine an...
Disarming the Key Leader Engagement
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] INFORMATION ENGAGEMENTS IN Multi-National Division-South took place at warp speed during the build-up to the 30 June 2009 transition of U.S. forces in Iraq. Iraqi Security Forces were improving their capabilities every day,...
Discipline, Punishment, and Counterinsurgency
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] JUST AS COMMANDERS are responsible for the climate in their units, so the Army as an institution is responsible for the moral climate it fosters. In this article, I will outline some of the contradictions and ambiguities in...
Foreword
The core of the Army profession is our ethic. The Army ethic, however, is paradoxical. It must be sufficiently foundational to anchor the Army culture across time, yet adaptive enough to respond to changing environments. The Army has been in transition...
Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] If we now consider briefly the subjective nature of war--the means by which war has to be fought--it will look more than ever like a gamble ... From the very start there is an interplay of possibilities, probabilities, good...
Legitimacy and Military Operations
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] America is at war ... We have kept on the offensive against terrorist networks, leaving our enemy weakened, but not yet defeated ... The struggle against this enemy ... has been difficult. And our work is far from over. ...
Moral Disengagements: When Will Good Soldiers Do Bad Things?
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] There is no moral precept that does not have something inconvenient about it. --Denis Diderot THROUGH INTUITION, VARIOUS EXPERIENCES, reactions to the experiences of others, and exposure to standards held by others,...
National Will from a Threat Perspective
Next year we are to bring all the soldiers home For lack of money, and it is all right. Places they guarded, or kept orderly, We want the money for ourselves at home Instead of working. And this is all right. It's hard to say who wanted it to happen,...
Now That We're Leaving Iraq, What Did We Learn?
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] ON 19 AUGUST 2010, the last combat unit--the 4th Stryker Brigade of the 2nd Infantry Division--left Iraq as Operation Iraqi Freedom became Operation New Dawn. Already our troop strength is below 50,000 in Iraq. It's premature...
On the Road to Articulating Our Professional Ethic
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] "Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique." --James MacGregor Burns THE ARMY HAS long functioned without any formal expression of its professional ethic. In fact, many...
Owning Our Army Ethic
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] OPERATIONAL ADAPTABILITY REQUIRES every professional Soldier to understand his or her situation in depth and context. In the midst of complexity and uncertainty, the character of warfare may change, yet the fundamental duty...
Reconnecting with Our Roots: Reflections on the Army's Ethic
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] ON 7 JUNE 2010, Operation Enduring Freedom surpassed the Vietnam War as the longest war in American history. (1) The last nine years of persistent conflict forced an unprecedented operational and cognitive adaptation on our...
Shared Situational Understanding: Fundamental Principles and Iconoclastic Observations
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] SITUATIONAL UNDERSTANDING (by a single decision maker, however august) and shared situational understanding (by multiple decision makers who must act in concert to achieve shared goals and desired outcomes) pose two related...
Talking Grand Strategy
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] At the strategic level, the campaign replaces the engagement, and the theater of operations takes the place of the position. At the next stage, the war as a whole replaces the campaign, and the whole country the theater of...
The Allure of Quick Victory: Lessons from Peru's Fight against Sendero Luminoso
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] FOURTEEN YEARS AFTER a powerful rebellion spread fear and destruction throughout the nation of Peru, the commanding general of the Peruvian Army, Otto Guibovich, provided the ominous warning: "If we don't do something they...
The Challenge of Leadership in the Interagency Environment
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] TO ADDRESS MYRIAD ISSUES in foreign engagements across the range of military operations, numerous federal agencies are required. Military members who operate in this interagency environment may well think they have traveled...
The Embedded Morality in FM 3-24 Counterinsurgency
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] TODAY'S ARMY DOCTRINE describes a new era of "persistent conflict" in which military professionals must apply their skills in "complex" and "multidimensional" environments and conduct operations "among the people." (1) Marines...
The Inclination for War Crimes
DO YOU THINK your unit cannot be involved in a war crime? How do you know? Most leaders believe it would never happen in their unit, yet one story after another concerning American Soldiers and Marines who allegedly participated in war crimes has been...
The Militarization of Gazprom
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] IN JULY 2007, Russia's Duma passed a bill that would allow energy companies Gazprom (Russia's state-owned natural gas monopoly) and Transneft (which controls Russia's oil pipeline infrastructure) the right to create private,...
The Need for Discretion in Resilient Soldiering
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Professionalism is the continuing exercise of discretionary judgment in applying expert knowledge. --Don M. Snider A SERGEANT MANNED A guard post in Iraq. His tour of duty had been relatively uneventful, when suddenly...
The Top Seven Myths of U.S. Defense Policy toward the Americas
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] RECENT DISCUSSIONS AND commentaries on U.S. defense policy in the Americas have created a number of myths regarding the Obama administration's approach to the region and a series of inaccuracies that require clarification....
Thoughts on the Battle for the Minds: IO and COIN in the Pashtun Belt
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] COMBAT OPERATIONS PROVIDE intellectual comfort. It is what we, the practitioners of the military art, are trained and practiced at. It is what we have done historically. Nonlethal, economic, development-based governance operations...
Warriors, the Army Ethos, and the Sacred Trust of Soldiers
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] There are well-dressed foolish ideas just as there are well-dressed fools. --Nicolas De Chamfort AS A DISCURSIVE factor in current information operations, the Army's formal use of the term warrior for its Soldiers may...
What Does Contemporary Science Say about Ethical Leadership?
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] AUTHENTIC, TRANSFORMATIONAL, and ethical leadership is at the heart of our military profession. Leaders at all levels set the ethical tone for subordinates in their units either by omission or commission and have a significant...
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