American Journal of Criminal Law

American Journal of Criminal Law is a magazine focusing on American Criminal Law

Articles

Vol. 43, No. 2, Spring

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Compared with the Law of Electronic Surveillance in Europe
I. Introduction........................................................................................125II. FISA...................................................................................................128III. Electronic Surveillance in Europe......................................................135A....
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A Tale of Two Dystopias: Order and Chaos on the Electronic Frontier
A Keynote Address For The Frontiers of Cybersecurity Policy and Law ConferenceThe Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and LawUniversity of Texas at Austin Law SchoolFebruary 5, 2016Good evening everyone, and thank you to Bobby Chesney...
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Doubling Down: Why Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations Should Be Designated as Foreign Terrorist Organizations and as Significant Narcotics Traffickers
I. Introduction........................................................................................174II. The Evolution of the Cartel................................................................175A. In the beginning there was Colombia and Colombia...
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Falling on My Sword: Why I Testified against Myself to Help a Client
In August 2007, Rolando Ramirez came into my office to hire me on an Intoxication Manslaughter case. Rolando was about 22 years old, and was an innocent looking, heavy set Hispanic guy, with big sweet puppy dog eyes and long eyelashes that looked wet,...
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Vol. 43, No. 1, Fall

Is Bruton on Life Support in the Aftermath of Crawford V. Washington?
I. Introduction............................................................................................1II. Bruton and its Progeny...........................................................................3III. Crawford Changes the Landscape..........................................................7IV....
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Does Privacy Require Secrecy? Societal Expectations of Privacy in the Digital Ages
I. Introduction..........................................................................................20II. Katz, Reasonable Expectations of Privacy, and the ThirdParty Doctrine..................................................................................23A....
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Who Watches the Watchmen? Accountability in Federal Corporate Criminal Prosecution Agreements
I. Introduction..........................................................................................62II. Background...........................................................................................66A. NPA and DPA History and Design.............................................66B....
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The Power of Civil Enforcement
Gambling, prostitution, and drug dealing are big businesses in Harris County. Unfortunately, we have no shortage of illegal game rooms, massage parlors, after-hours clubs, problem motels, and apartment complexes in our county. Law enforcement and criminal...
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Answering the Call: Prosecuting the Kaufman County DA Murders
On Thursday morning, January 31, 2013,1 was in my office in Dallas when my cell phone rang. I saw that the call was from Sue Korioth, the chief appellate lawyer in the Kaufman County Criminal District Attorney's Office. When I answered the phone, I assumed...
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Vol. 42, No. 3, Summer

All the Way Home 1: Assessing the Constitutionality of Juvenile Curfew Laws
I. Introduction........................................................................................178A. Purpose and Theory Underlying Juvenile Curfew Laws..........179B. Effectiveness of Juvenile Curfew Laws....................................181C...
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When the Batterer Wears a Badge: Regulating Officer-Involved Domestic Violence as a Line-of-Duty Crime
I. Introduction..................213II. When the Batterer Wears a Badge: The Special Case of OfficerInvolved Domestic Violence..........216A. The Role of Power and Control in Domestic Violence............216B. The Officer as the Abuser...............218C....
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Vol. 42, No. 2, Spring

"Stand Your Ground" and Self-Defense
I. Introduction: Stand or Retreat..............................................................90II. Self-Defense and the Duty to Retreat...................................................93A. Core Elements of Self-Defense...................................................94B....
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Cleaving the Gordian Knot: Implicit Bias, Selective Prosecution, & Charging Guidelines
I. Introduction 139II. Prosecutorial Discretion & Prosecutorial Bias 141A. The Scope of Prosecutorial Power 141B. Discriminatory Effects & Implicit Bias 144III. Selective Prosecution Doctrine & Implicit Bias 149A. Overview of the Armstrong...
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Vol. 42, No. 1, Winter

Juvenile Justice's Second Chance: Untangling the Retroactive Application of Miller V. Alabama under the Teague Doctrine
AbstractOver the last decade, the Supreme Court pieced together a clear doctrine related to sentencing juvenile offenders transferred to adult criminal courts: convicted persons eighteen years of age or younger may not receive the death penalty, may...
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The Unbearable Lightness of Criminal Procedure
I. Introduction 39II. Lynch's Insights into the American System 41III. Comparing Criminal Procedure to Civil Procedure 44A. First Stage: Pre-Complaint Investigation 49B. Second Stage: Filing the Complaint 53C. Third Stage: Developing and Testing the...
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Vol. 41, No. 3, Summer

An Epistemological Look at the Standard of Proof for Future Danger Predictions under the Texas Capital Sentencing Scheme
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)I. Introduction................................................................................209A. Relevant Statutory Language in Texas.....................................210B. Overview...................................................................................212II....
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American Hustle: Reflections on Abscam and the Entrapment Defense
I. A Sting is Bom: The Inception of Abscam..................235II. Summary of Charged Offenses.................. 238A. Federal Bribery Statute (18 U.S.C. § 201(b)).................. 238B. Federal Gratuity Statute (18 U.S.C. § 201(c)).....................
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Whistling Past the Graveyard: Why Obamacare's New Commerce Clause Rules May Spell Trouble for Federal Criminal Laws
Adam Battle WhitesideI. Introduction 263II. Commerce Clause Jurisprudence and Federal Criminal Law....264A. Criminal Commerce Clause Jurisprudence at the Supreme Court 265B. Modem Criminal Commerce Clause Jurisprudence in the Circuit Courts 267III. Consequences...
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Vol. 41, No. 2, Spring

Texas Ain't Tuscany: How a Truism Might Further Invigorate Contemporary "Cost Arguments" for Death-Penalty Abolition
In all negotiations of difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at once, but must prepare business, and so ripen it by degrees.1I. Introduction ...................................... 151II. Eighteenth-Century Tuscany: Where Rational Arguments for...
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Law and Loss: Notes on the Legal Construction of Pain
AbstractEmpirical research into the effects of mass incarceration reveals that the pains of contemporary imprisonment extend far beyond prison walls. This paper surveys how mass incarceration disrupts individual lives in wide-ranging ways, exacerbating...
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The Death Penalty and Mass Incarceration: Convergences and Divergences
I. Common Political Background Conditions....................................................190II. Mutually Reinforcing Policies........................................................................194III. Recent Divergences........................................................................................197IV....
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Vol. 40, No. 3, Summer

No Contest: Why Protective Orders Provide Victims Superior Protection to Bond Conditions
I. Introduction ........................... 228II. Protective Orders in Texas ........................... 228A. Summary of Texas Statutes ........................... 2291. Types of Protective Orders ........................... 2292. The Protective Order...
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Drawing Sensible Borders for the Definition of "Foreign Official" under the FCPA
I. Introduction ......................... 254II. Who is a Foreign Official? ......................... 260A. Broad language of the statute ......................... 260B. United States v. Noriega (Lindsey) ......................... 262C. Carson ............................
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Fishing with Landmines: Healthcare Fraud and the Civil False Claims Act-Where We Are, How We Got Here, and the Case for More Trials
I. Introduction..................... 301II. Where Are We?..................... 303III. How Did We Get Here?..................... 305A. Mischarges..................... 308B. Negotiating in Bad Faith..................... 308C. False Certifications........................
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A Principled Approach to the Standard of Proof for Affirmative Defenses in Criminal Trials
I. Introduction ....................281II. First Principles .................... 282III. Case Law .................... 284A. In re Winship .................... 285B. Mullaney v. Wilbur .................... 285C. Patterson v. New York .......................
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Vol. 40, No. 2, Spring

Constitutional Penumbras and Prophylactic Rights: The Right to Counsel and the "Fruit of the Poisonous Tree"
AbstractThis Article argues that a non-coercive right to counsel violation under Miranda and Edwards does not implicate "fruit of the poisonous tree" suppression of evidence. A Miranda/Edwards violation takes place when a suspect in police custody invokes...
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Florence and the Machine: The Supreme Court Upholds Suspicionless Strip Searches Resulting from Computer Error
AbstractThis Article analyzes Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Burlington, in which the Supreme Court considered whether the Fourth Amendment permitted corrections officials to automatically compel all new inmates to undergo a...
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A Presumptive In-Custody Analysis to Police-Conducted School Interrogations
I. Introduction 145II. J.D.B, v. North Carolina 149III. United States Supreme Court Jurisprudence has Long Recognized a Heightened Risk of Coercion and False Confessions of Juveniles During Custodial Interrogations 152IV. The Totality of Circumstances...
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Understanding Hate Crime Statutes and Building towards a Better System in Texas
I. Introduction..........198II. History of Hate Crime Statutes..........199III. Types of Hate Crime Statutes..........201A. Institutional Vandalism..........201B. Sentence Enhancements..........202C. Substantive Offenses..........203D. Data Collection..........204IV....
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Vol. 41, No. 1, Winter

Racial Threat versus Racial Empathy in Sentencing-Capital and Otherwise
I. Introduction....................................................................................2II. Empathy, Race, and the Capital Jury.............................................5A. Overview.................................................................................................61....
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Grace Notes: A Case for Making Mitigation the Heart of Noncapital Sentencing
Investigation and presentation of comprehensive life history mitigation is at the heart of successful capital litigation that has contributed to a steady decline in capital sentences. Noncapital incarceration rates have also begun to level, and various...
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Institutionalizing Bias: The Death Penalty, Federal Drug Prosecutions, and Mechanisms of Disparate Punishment
I. Introduction .......... 91II. Two Contemporary Systems of Punishment .......... 93A. The Federal Sentencing System in the Guidelines Era .......... 93B. The "Modem" American Capital Sentencing System .......... 97III. What is (Institutionalized) Racial...
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Vol. 40, No. 1, Fall

The Supposed Strength of Hopelessness: The Supreme Court Further Undermines Miranda in Howes V. Fields
AbstractThis Article analyzes Howes v. Fields, in which the Supreme Court ruled that imprisonment alone was not enough to constitute Miranda custody. Fields provided three grounds to distinguish prisoners from mere suspects: (1) inmates serving in prison...
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"Ag-Gag" Legislation and Public Choice Theory: Maintaining a Diffuse Public by Limiting Information
I. Introduction ..........................95II. Existing and Proposed Ag-Gag Legislation ..................97A. Currently Enacted Laws ......................97B. Proposed and Pending Legislation ......................100C. Federal Ag-Gag: The Animal...
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Seventeen, Going on Eighteen: An Operational and Fiscal Analysis of a Proposal to Raise the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in Texas
AbstractThe age of juvenile jurisdiction in Texas, unlike the majority of states, is seventeen, meaning that any seventeen-year-old arrested is treated as an adult, regardless of the severity of the crime. Recent research shows that young people face...
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Vol. 39, No. 3, Summer

Predators and Propensity: The Proper Approach for Determining the Admissibility of Prior Bad Acts Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Prosecutions
I. Introduction .................. 328II. History of Similar Fact Evidence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases .................. 331A. Early American Courts .................. 331B. Molineux and Federal Rule of Evidence 404 .................. 333C. Lustful...
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Parsing the Reasonable Person: The Case of Self-Defense
I. Introduction ................................................ 425II. The Problem ................................................ 427A. The Law of Self-Defense ................................................ 428B. Glossing the Reasonable Person ...................................................
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Trashing Our System of Justice? Overturning Jury Verdicts Where Evidence Is Found in the Computer's Cache
I. INTRODUCTION ..............................382II. POSSESSION AND RECEIPT OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ..........383A. Defining Possession and Receipt of Child Pornography ..........3831. What is Child Pornography? ......... 3832. What Constitutes "Knowing"...
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Vol. 39, No. 2, Spring

Objectifying and Identifying in the Theory of Excuse
AbstractAs fundamentally social creatures, healthy and normal human persons have a deep and well-developed capacity for identification with other persons. We are susceptible to such identification when we see others as similar to ourselves, and especially...
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One-Book, Two Sentences: Ex Post Facto Considerations of the One-Book Rule after United States V. Kumar
AbstractThis article addresses the ongoing discord among the federal courts of appeals with respect to the implications of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines' "one-book rule" and its constitutionality under the Ex Post Facto Clause. A recent decision by...
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The Decision Zone: The New Stage of Interrogation Created by Berghuis V. Thompkins
AbstractThis Article addresses a new stage of interrogation, approved of for the first time in the Supreme Court's 2010 decision, Berghuis v. Thompkins. This stage-the "decision zone"-is the period, however brief or prolonged, after officers have read...
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Dormant Data: Why and How to Make Good Use of Deaths in Custody Reporting
I. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 302II. The Current Standard for Conditions of Confinement, and the Incentives It Creates ..........................................................................................................
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