The Middle East Journal

The Middle East Institute has published The Middle East Journal quarterly since 1947. The Journal provides original and objective research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. The Journal provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity. Become a member and receive a complimentary individual subscription. Or subscribe to the MEJ for your institution. Each issue of The Middle East Journal includes: * Articles written by renowned scholars, foreign policy analysts and area experts. Each article offers unique insights invaluable to the scholar and lay reader alike. * A Chronology maintained continuously since 1947. Organized by subject and country, the chronology is a reference source without rival. * Book Reviews that are among the most respected, comprehensive, and up-to-date in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Full-length reviews, as well as annotations of recent publications, permit the serious reader to keep abreast of current literature on the area. Every subscriber to the Journal receives complimentary access to the electronic version of the Journal. This fully searchable, downloadable version includes access back through 2004

Articles from Vol. 53, No. 4, Autumn

A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni Usul Al-Fiqh
A History of Islamic Legal Theories: an Introduction to Sunni usul al-fiqh, by Wael Hallaq. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. ix + 262 pages. Refs. to p. 287. Index to p. 294. $59.95. Reviewed by Jonathan E. Brockopp As one of the leading...
Arafat: From Defender to Dictator
Arafat: From Defender to Dictator, by Said Aburish. New York and London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1998. 325 pages. Notes to p. 341. Bibl. to p. 348. Index to p. 360. $25.95. Reviewed by Rex Brynen Yasir `Arafat has been the subject of more than a half-dozen...
Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian Natinal Movement, 1949-1993
Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993, by Yezid Sayigh. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. xliv + 692 pages. Notes to p. 841. Bibl. to p. 912. Index to p. 953. $99. Reviewed by Rashid Khalidi This...
Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic
Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic by Thomas Goltz. London and Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. xxx + 487 pages. Index to p. 496. $39.95. Reviewed by George S. Harris This work betrays a split...
Chronology: Algeria
Algeria See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs 1999 Apr. 16: In Algiers, hundreds of demonstrators protested the 15 April presidential election resuits, alleging that President-elect `Abd al-'Aziz Bouteflika won due to former President Liamine...
Chronology: Arab-Israeli Conflict
Arab-Israeli Conflict See also, Palestinian Affairs, Egypt, Israel, Jordan 1999 Apr. 16: A Jerusalem court sentenced an Israeli to 42 months' imprisonment for plotting to throw a pig's head into a Muslim shrine. [4/17 WP] Apr. 22: The Israeli Defense...
Chronology: Central Asia and the Caucasos
Central Asia and the Caucasus See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs 1999 Apr. 28: In Tajikistan, near Dushanbe, an unidentified armed group kidnapped six police officers. 4/29 FBIS May 5: The Kyrgyzstani national security ministry arrested 12...
Chronology: Egypt
Egypt See also, Arab-Israeli Conflict, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs 1999 Apr. 18: A military court tried 107 people alleged to be members of Islamic Jihad, 60 of whom were tried in absentia, and nine of whom were sentenced to death. [4/19 FT,...
Chronology: Iran
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Iraq 1999 Apr. 17: Over 320 journalists signed a letter to President Muhammad Khatami asking for legal protection for journalists. [4/19 WP, FBIS] Apr. 21: A court sentenced Ayatollah Mohsen Kadivar to 18...
Chronology: Iraq
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Turkey 1999 Apr. 17: In the northern "no-fly" zone, after being threatened by hostile Iraqi action during a patrolling sortie, US aircraft attacked Iraqi antiaircraft sites. The Iraqi News Agency (INA) reported...
Chronology: Israel
Israel See also, Arab-Israeli Conflict, Regional Affairs, Lebanon 1999 Apr. 19: The Knesset passed an extradition law that would allow Israeli citizens who were nonresidents to be tried abroad for crimes committed abroad. [4/20 NYT, WSJ] Israel adopted...
Chronology: Kuwait
1999 May 4: Amir Shaykh Jabir at-Ahmad al-Sabah dissolved the parliament when it threatened to hold a vote of no-confidence against Ahmad al-Kulaib, the Islamic affairs minister who was held responsible for mistakes contained in 120,000 printed copies...
Chronology: Lebanon
See also, Regional Affairs 1999 Apr. 16: Israeli and South Lebanese Army (SLA) soldiers, based in the southern town of Arnoun, fired on ten journalists as they approached the town, injuring one person. The previous night Israeli and SLA soldiers had...
Chronology: Pakistan
See also, Regional Affairs, Afghanistan 1999 Apr. 16: In Karachi, thousands of Pakistan People's Party (PPP) members demonstrated against former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's conviction on corruption charges. On 15 April, a court in Rawalpindi sentenced,...
Chronology: Petroleum Affairs
1999 Apr. 18: The Baku-Supsa oil pipeline opened to transport oil from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. [4/19 FT] Apr. 22: Edison, an independent energy company controlled by the Italian Montedison Group, reached an $8 billion agreement with In Salah...
Chronology: Regional Affairs
1999 Apr. 17: In Tehran, Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi met with Yemeni Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs `Abd al-Qadir Bajammal to discuss bilateral relations and regional issues. [419 FBIS] In Surt, Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhdhafi...
Chronology: Sudan
See also, Regional Affairs 1999 Apr. 16: The newspaper Akhbar Al-Yawin reported that authorities had arrested several journalists on suspicion of links to foreign intelligence agencies. [4/20 WP] Apr. 19: Security authorities arrested two journalists-a...
Chronology: Turkey
See also, Regional Affairs, Cyprus 1999 Apr. 16: Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) fighters killed six soldiers in an ambush on a highway near Tunceli, in the southeast. Turkish troops killed at least 33 PKK fighters in retaliation, according to the Anatolia...
Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts
Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts, by Charles Issawi. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 150 pages. $27.50. Reviewed by J. C. Hurewitz In 1951, the Graduate School of International Affairs at Columbia University invited Charles...
Cyprus: The Destruction of a Republic: British Documents 1960-65 / the Cyprus Imbroglio
Cyprus: The Destruction of a Republic: British Documents 1960-65, by Salahi R. Sonyel. Huntingdon, UK: The Eothen Press, 1997. x + 165 pages. Notes to p.183. Bibl. to p. 189. Index to p.198. $62.50 cloth; $35 paper. The Cyprus Imbroglio, by Clement H....
Dilemmas of Democracy and Political Parties in Sectarian Societies: The Case of the PSP in Lebanon
Dilemmas of Democracy and Political Parties in Sectarian Societies: The Case of the PSP in Lebanon, by Nazih Richani, New York: St. Martin Press, 1998. viii + 152 pages. Notes to p. 172. Bibl. to p. 180. Index to p. 183. $49.95. Reviewed by Abdo 1. Baaklini...
Editor's Note
This issue offers an interesting example of the breadth of topics, disciplines, and geographical range which The Middle East Journal seeks to provide to its readers. There is no common theme, unless that theme is the diversity of the region itself and...
Education, Empowerment, and Control: The Case of the Arabs in Israel
Education, Empowerment, and Control: The Case of the Arabs in Israel, by Majid AI-Haj. Albany, NY, SUNY Press 1995. 223 pages. Bib]. to p. 241. Index to p. 249. $18.95. Reviewed by Mounir Farah Education, Empowerment, and Control is a unique and a meticulous...
"Identity" and Political Survival in Saddam's Iraq
Because of Iraq's brittle national identity, the ruling elite have had countless opportunities to define and redefine the country's identity in accordance with their political interests. Particularly relevant to authoritarian regimes, it is no coincidence...
Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power
Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power, by Cyrus Ghani. London: LB. Taurus, 1998. xiv + 412 pages. Bibl. to p. 421. Index of names to p. 434. $45. Reviewed by David Suratgar Cyrus Ghani, an Americanophile Iranian lawyer...
Khatami and the Iranian Exonomy at Mid-Term
Iranian President Muhammad Khatami won his upset electoral victory in 1997 due to his promise to revive the ailing Iranian economy. Midway through his term, however, the economy is hardly any healthier. Nor is the short term outlook any brighter without...
Knowledge and Liberation
Knowledge and Liberation, by Nasir Khusraw. Ed. and trans. by Faquir M. Hunzai. London: LB. Tauris Press, 1998. xii + 125 pages. Index to p. 128. Technical terms to p. 132. $32.50. Reviewed by Mehdi Aminrazavi In Knowledge and Liberation (Goshayesh wa...
Labor and the State in Egypt: Workers, Unions, and Economic Restructuring
Labor and the State in Egypt: Workers, Unions, and Economic Restructuring, by Marsha Pripstein Posusney. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. xii + 253 pages. Notes to p. 293. Bibl. to p. 312. Index to p. 327. $49.50 cloth; $17.50 paper. Reviewed...
Let Jasmine Rain Down: Song and Remembrance among Syrian Jews
Let Jasmine Rain Down: Song and Remembrance among Syrian Jews, by Kay Kaufman Shelemay. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1998. xvi + 266 pages. Refs. to p. 278. Index to p. 291. $65 cloth; $25 paper. Reviewed by Robert Fleisher The term...
Louis Massignon: The Crucible of Compassion
Louis Massignon: The Crucible of Compassion, by Mary Louise Gude. London and South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996. xii + 283 pages. n.p. Reviewed by Gerhard Bowering Mary Louise Gude's biography of Louis Massignon (1883-1962) is written...
Management of Third World Crises in Adverse Partnerships: Theory and Practice
MODERN CULTURE, HISTORY, AND POLITICS Management of Third World Crises in Adverse Partnerships: Theory and Practice, by Imtiaz H. Bokhari. Karachi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. xx + 303 pages. Bibl. to p. 325. Index to p. 333. n.p. Reviewed...
Modernization of the Law in Arab States: An Investigation into Current Civil, Criminal and Constitutional Law in the Arab World
Modernization of the Law in Arab States: An Investigation into Current Civil, Criminal and Constitutional Law in the Arab World, by George N. Sfeir. San Francisco, London and Bethesda: Austin & Winfield, 1998. Distributed by The University Press...
Neighbors and Stangers: The Fundamentals of Foreign Affairs
Neighbors and Strangers: The Fundamentals of Foreign Affairs, by William R. Polk. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1997. 319 pages. Notes to p. 349. Index to p. 366. $24.95. Reviewed by Melvin A. Goodman William Polk's Neighbors and...
Oman: Political Development in a Changing World
Oman: Political Development in a Changing World, by Carol J. Riphenburg. Westport, CT and London: Praeger Publishers, 1998. xii + 237 pages. Bibl. to p. 242. Index to p. 248. $59.95. Reviewed by W Lynn Rigsbee 11 Praeger is to be commended for publishing...
Palestinian Citizens in an Ethnic Jewish State: Identities in Conflict
Palestinian Citizens in an Ethnic Jewish State: Identities in Conflict, by Nadim N. Rouhana. London and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997. x + 231 pages. Appends. to p. 243. Notes to p. 273. Bibl. to p. 288. Index to p. 300. $30. Reviewed by...
Politics and Diplomacy in Egypt: The Diaries of Sir Miles Lampson 1935-1937
Politics and Diplomacy in Egypt: The Diaries of Sir Miles Lampson 1935-1937, edited by M.E. Yapp. Oriental & African Archives, 3. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1977. xvii + 973 pages. Appends. to p. 993. Index to p. 1044. $185. Reviewed by...
Shattering the Myth: Islam beyond Violence
Shattering the Myth: Islam beyond Violence, by Bruce Lawrence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997. xix + 185. Notes to p. 218. Bibl. to p. 229. Index to p. 237. $24.95. Reviewed by Ahmad S. Moussalli This book does, indeed, shatter the myth...
State Building and Late Development
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS State Building and Late Development, by David Waldner. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999. x + 240 pages. Index to p. 246. $49.95 cloth; $18.95 paper. Reviewed by Gawdat Bahgat This is an interesting study of institution-building...
The Days
The Days, by Taha Hussein. Translated by E.H. Paxton, Hilary Wayment and Kenneth Cragg. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 1997. xiv + 656 pages. Notes. Bibl. Index. $19.95 paper. Reviewed by Aida A. Bamia Writing about popular books such...
The End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923
The End of the Ottoman Empire, 19081923, by A.L. Macfie. Turning Points. Gen. Ed: Keith Robbins. London and New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Ltd., 1998. ix + 239 pages. Gloss. to p. 246. Maps to p. 253. Index to p. 258. S 17.95 paper. Reviewed by Michael...
The Limits of Democracy in the Middle East: The Case of Jordan
Despite movement toward democracy throughout the Middle East, limitations to political participation persist. In Jordan, the accomplishments of democratic political reform are marred by continued authoritarian tendencies. The presence of repression in...
The Politicisation of Islam: A Case Study of Tunisia
The Politicisation of Islam: A Case Study of Tunisia, by Mohamed Elhachmi Hamdi. London and Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998. xiii + 174 pages. Appends. to p. 189. Bibl. to p. 195. Index to p. 204. $19. Reviewed by Kenneth J. Perkins This is the first...
Towards an Islamic Liberalism? the Nurcu Movement and Fethullah Gulen
Often, analysis of Turkish politics and society concentrates on the polarization between political Islam as represented by the Welfare (Refah) and Virtue (Fazilet) Parties, and the secularist Kernalism of the state establishment and the military. This...
Warriors of the Prophet: The Struggle for Islam
Warriors of the Prophet: The Struggle for Islam, by Mark Huband. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998. xix + 168 pages. Endnotes to p. 188. Index to p. 196. $25. Reviewed by As`ad AbuKhalil If the specter of communism haunted Europe in the 19th century...
Women and Work in Saudi Arabia: How Flexible Are Islamic Margins?
Saudi Arabia's education system is producing more employment-seeking graduates than the economy can absorb, while for women, cultural and legal constraints further hinder the growth of new employment options. Can the Saudi regime respond to women's desire...
Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change
Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change, by Ramsay M. Hank and Elsa Marston. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996. 199 pages. Notes to p. 213. Gloss. to p. 215. Bibl. to p. 217. Index to p. 224. n.p. Reviewed by Mary Ann Fay Elsa Marston and Ramsay...
Women, Islamisms and the State: Contemporary Feminisms in Egypt
Women, Islamisms and the State: Contemporary Feminisms in Egypt, by Azza M. Karam. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. xvii + 251 pages. Notes to p. 263. Bibl. to p. 278. Index to p. 284. $69.95. Reviewed by Mervat Hatem The title of this book promises...
Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experiences
Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experiences, by Laurie A. Brand. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. xviii + 264 pages. Notes to p. 291. Interviews to p. 296. Bibl. to p. 305. Index to p. 320. $50...
Women, Work, and Economic Reform in the Middle East and North Africa
Women, Work, and Economic Reform in the Middle East and North Africa, by Valentine Moghadam. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998. xi + 235 pages. Acronyms and Abbrevs. to p. 238, Refs. to p. 253. Index to p. 258. $55. Reviewed by Hiva Harik This volume...