The Middle East Journal

The Middle East Institute has published The Middle East Journal quarterly since 1947. The Journal provides original and objective research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. The Journal provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity. Become a member and receive a complimentary individual subscription. Or subscribe to the MEJ for your institution. Each issue of The Middle East Journal includes: * Articles written by renowned scholars, foreign policy analysts and area experts. Each article offers unique insights invaluable to the scholar and lay reader alike. * A Chronology maintained continuously since 1947. Organized by subject and country, the chronology is a reference source without rival. * Book Reviews that are among the most respected, comprehensive, and up-to-date in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Full-length reviews, as well as annotations of recent publications, permit the serious reader to keep abreast of current literature on the area. Every subscriber to the Journal receives complimentary access to the electronic version of the Journal. This fully searchable, downloadable version includes access back through 2004

Articles from Vol. 68, No. 3, Summer

Chronology: Afghanistan
See also Central Asia, PakistanJan. 16: The United States military suspended the transfer of detainees to Afghan prisons out of concern over human rights abuses. US authorities also asked the Afghan government to investigate allegations of torture at...
Chronology: Algeria
Jan. 23: Officials announced that President 'Abd al-'Aziz Bouteflika would run for a fourth term in the presidential election scheduled for April 17, despite health concerns. The president suffered a stroke in April 2013, and had not directly addressed...
Chronology-Arab-Israeli Conflict
See also Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Palestinian TerritoriesJan. 16: Israeli air strikes in the Gaza Strip wounded a woman and four children. Israel claimed the strikes were in retaliation for five Palestinian rockets fired from Gaza the previous night by...
Chronology-Central Asia and the Caucasus
See also Afghanistan, Iran, PakistanJan. 29: The Kyrgyz and Tajik foreign ministers met in Bishkek to discuss the border dispute between them that led to a shoot-out on January 8. The leaders agreed to withdraw additional troops from the region that...
Chronology: Egypt
See also Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, LibyaJan. 18: The draft constitutional referendum passed with 98% of the vote, raising international concern about the vote's fairness. Thirty-eight percent of Egypt's electorate participated in the two-day...
Chronology: Iran
See also Iraq, Israel, Oman, Saudi Arabia, SyriaJan. 20: The nuclear deal reached between Iran and the five permanent United Nations Security Council member states and Germany (P5+1) involved in nuclear talks went into effect. Iran agreed to restrict...
Chronology: Iraq
See also Iran, Syria, JordanJan. 15: A wave of bombings swept across the country, killing at least 73 people. At least nine car bombs detonated in Baghdad, and bombs went off in a funeral tent in Ba'quba, killing 16 members of the Awakening Council,...
Chronology: Lebanon
See also Israel, Syria, TurkeyFeb. 3: A suicide bomber detonated explosives in a minibus during rush hour in Beirut suburb of Choueifat, killing himself and wounding several people. Although no group immediately claimed responsibility, Sunni militias...
Chronology: Libya
Seoe also Egypt, TunisiaJan21. 18: The General National Congress (GNC), Libya's interim parliamentary body, declared a state of emergency throughout the country in response to intense clashes in the southwestern city of Sabha over the course of several...
Chronology: Morocco and Western Sahara
Jan. 23: The Moroccan parliament unanimously voted to eliminate a clause in the penal code that allowed a rapist to go unpunished if he married his victim. The loophole sparked protests after a 16-year- old girl from Larache committed suicide in 2012...
Chronology: Pakistan
See also AfghanistanJan. 20: Pakistani air strikes killed at least 40 in North Waziristan. The government appeared to be retaliating for recent bombings in Rawalpindi and Bannu, which killed 30 members of security forces. Militants also killed 18 Shi'i...
Chronology: Saudi Arabia
See also Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Syria, YemenFeb. 3: King 'Abdullah issued a royal decree that would punish any Saudi who joined a foreign conflict with 3-20 years in prison. He also made joining or supporting an extremist terrorist organization punishable...
Chronology: Sudan
See also QatarJan. 23: The number of displaced persons in the Darfur region in 2013 increased to 400,000 - double the number for the previous two years combined, according to a senior United Nations (UN) official in the Department of Peacekeeping. The...
Chronology: Syria
See also Arab-Israeli Conflict, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Turkey, Saudi ArabiaJan. 21: War crimes prosecutors announced that there was clear evidence that the Syrian government had systematically tortured and executed approximately 11,000...
Chronology: Tunisia
See also LibyaJan. 29: Parliament approved Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa's new technocratic government by a vote of 149 out of 193 lawmakers during an overnight session. The new ministers were sworn in and replaced the Ennahda Movement-led administration...
Chronology: Turkey
See also Iran, Iraq, Israel, SyriaJan. 16: The Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors reassigned the chief prosecutor of Istanbul and 20 other high-ranking prosecutors. The prosecutors were working on a wide-ranging corruption inquiry that implicated...
Chronology: Yemen
See also Saudi Arabia, SudanJan. 20: Clashes between Huthi and Salafimilitias killed at least 22 people in 'Amran Governorate, north of Sana'a. A government-brokered cease-fire on January 11 sought to resolve the conflict between the two groups. [Al...
Communications
The Journal welcomes comments from its readers. All communications should be addressed to the Editor and bear the full name and address of the writer. A selection of those received will be published periodically in these columns. When a comment is received...
Editor's Note
With events in Iraq developing rapidly and dramatically as we go to press, it is fitting that this issue offers two studies relating to that country. The other articles cover a considerable range of topics.In "Saddam and the Islamists," Samuel Helfont...
EGYPT-Imagined Empires: A History of Revolt in Egypt
Imagined Empires: A History of Revolt in Egypt, by Zeinab Abul-Magd. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2013. 216 pages. $65 cloth; $29.95 paper.Reviewed by Terence WalzZeinab Abul-Magd's history of Upper Egypt covers the 1750-1950 period,...
EGYPT-Performing Piety: Singers and Actors in Egypt's Islamic Revival
EGYPT Performing Piety: Singers and Actors in Egypt's Islamic Revival, Karin Van Nieuwkerk. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2013. 320 pages. $60.Reviewed by Jonathan H. ShannonWhile much scholarly and popular attention in recent years has focused...
GENDER-Do Muslim Women Need Saving?/Women, Islam, and Resistance in the Arab World
GENDER Do Muslim Women Need Saving?, by Lila Abu-Lughod. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. 324 pages. $35.Women, Islam, and Resistance in the Arab World, by Maria Holt and Haifaa Jawad. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2013. 211 pages. $55.Reviewed...
GULF STATES-Tribal Modern: Branding New Nations in the Arab Gulf
GULF STATES Tribal Modern: Branding New Nations in the Arab Gulf, by miriam cooke. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press, 2014. 224 pages. $65 cloth; $29.95 paper.Reviewed by Najwa AdraIn Tribal Modern: Branding New Nations in the Arab Gulf,...
IRAN-Days of Revolution: Political Unrest in an Iranian Village
IRAN Days of Revolution: Political Unrest in an Iranian Village, by Mary Elaine Hegland. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 316 pages. $95 cloth; $27.95 paper.Reviewed by Jonathan G. KatzIn the summer of 1978, anthropologist Mary Elaine Hegland...
IRAN-Perceptions of Iran: History, Myths and Nationalism from Medieval Persia to the Islamic Republic
Perceptions of Iran: History, Myths and Nationalism from Medieval Persia to the Islamic Republic, edited by Ali M. Ansari. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. 256 pages. $96.Reviewed by Rudi MattheeThis volume of essays fully lives up to the cliché according...
IRAQ-Iraq in Wartime: Soldiering, Martyrdom, and Remembrance
IRAQ Iraq in Wartime: Soldiering, Martyr- dom, and Remembrance, by Dina Rizk Khoury. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013. 298 pages. $85 cloth; $29.99 paper.Dina Khoury's much anticipated study, Iraq in Wartime: Soldiering, Martyrdom and...
ISRAEL-Divine Service? Judaism and Israel's Armed Forces
ISRAEL Divine Service? Judaism and Israel's Armed Forces, by Stuart Cohen. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014. 201 pages. $101.95.In Divine Service?, Stuart Cohen, a foremost expert on religion in the armed forces, weighs in on the relationship be- tween Judaism...
Jewish-Arab Relations in Israeli Freemasonry: Between Civil Society and Nationalism
This article applies ethnographic methods and historical analysis to explore Jewish-Arab relations within Israeli Freemasonry. The article tracks local Masonic history as the fraternity developed from individual lodges under colonial- like obediences...
Kurdish History Textbooks: Building a Nation-State within a Nation-State
This article reviews the history and social studies textbooks used in Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) schools in terms of their contribution to the construction of the Kurdish/Kurdistani national identity. The article also examines how the KRG's...
KURDS-The Kurdish Spring: Geopolitical Changes and the Kurds
KURDS The Kurdish Spring: Geopolitical Changes and the Kurds, edited by Mo- hammed M.A. Ahmed and Michael Gunter. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2013. 344 pages. $40.This edited book, dedicated appropriate- ly to Robert Olson, one of the pioneers...
MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-Armies and State-Building in the Modern Middle East: Politics, Nationalism and Military Reform
MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS Armies and State-Building in the Modern Middle East: Politics, Nationalism and Military Reform, by Stephanie Cronin. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. 310 pages. $30 paper.Reviewed by Robert SpringborgRarely can one characterize...
MODERN HISTORY AND POLITICS-The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics
The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics, edited by John L. Esposito and Emad El-Din Shahin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. $150.Reviewed by Bruce B. LawrenceA major tome, The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics (hereafter OHIP), is divided...
PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, AND SCIENCE-Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age
PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, AND SCIENCE Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age, by Muhammad Qasim Zaman. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 363 pages. $30.99 paper.Reviewed by John O. VollMuslim advocates of religious and social reform present...
Recent Publications
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICTAmerican Diplomacy and the Israeli War of Independence, by Frank W. Brecher. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Press, 2013. 212 pages. $45 paper. Frank W. Brecher, a career foreign service officer, describes how President Harry Truman and...
Saddam and the Islamists: The Ba'thist Regime's Instrumentalization of Religion in Foreign Affairs
Based on extensive archival research with newly available Iraqi state and Ba'th Party documents, this article attempts to shed light on the Saddam Husayn regime's relationship with Islamists and Islamism, arguing that it instrumentalized Islam in its...
The Cost of Belonging: Citizenship Construction in the State of Qatar
In Qatar, processes of constructing citizenship have been strongly state-driven over the past four decades. This article reviews the primary influences on Qatari citizenship laws, including historical and contemporary social contexts that have impacted...
The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development and Its Activities in African Countries, 1961-2010
This article aims to highlight the impact of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) on Kuwait's foreign relations, especially with African countries. For more than five decades, KFAED has strengthened Kuwait's ties to the developing world...
TURKEY-And Then We Work for God: Rural Sunni Islam in Western Turkey
And Then We Work for God: Rural Sunni Islam in Western Turkey, by Kimberly Hart. Stanford: Stanford Univer- sity Press, 2013. 304 pages. 10 photos. $85 cloth; $24.95 paper.In And Then We Work for God, Kimberly Hart examines how Turkish villagers inter-...
TURKEY-Becoming Turkish: Nationalist Reforms and Cultural Negotiations in Early Republican Turkey, 1923-1945
TURKEY Becoming Turkish: Nationalist Reforms and Cultural Negotiations in Early Republican Turkey, 1923-1945, by Hale Yilmaz. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2013. 328 pages. $39.95.Hale Yilmaz's pathbreaking work on the history of the Turkish...
Waiting for the Arab Spring
The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East, by Kenneth M. Pollack et al. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2014. 383 pages. $26.95.Revolution, Revolt and Reform in North Africa: The Arab Spring and Beyond, by Ricardo René...
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