Perception and Psychophysics

Covers all areas of research in sensory processes, perception, attention, and psychophysics. Includes reports on experimental work, reviews, and issue commentary important to researchers.

Articles from Vol. 70, No. 8, November

Attentional Effects of Negative Faces: Top-Down Contingent or Involuntary?
Recent research has substantiated that schematic negative faces are found more efficiently than positive faces among crowds of distractor faces of varying set sizes. The present study asks whether this relative search asymmetry (RSA) is intention driven...
Does Training under Consistent Mapping Conditions Lead to Automatic Attention Attraction to Targets in Search Tasks?
Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) proposed that training under consistent stimulus-response mapping (CM) leads to automatic target detection in search tasks. Other theories, such as Treisman and Gelade's (1980) feature integration theory, consider target-distractor...
Influence of Color Word Availability on the Stroop Color-Naming Effect
Three experiments tested whether the Stroop color-naming effect is a consequence of word recognition's being automatic or of the color word's capturing visual attention. In Experiment 1, a color bar was presented at fixation as the color carrier, with...
Object-Based Attention with Endogenous Cuing and Positional Certainty
Previous studies have concluded that object-based attention does not always arise if attention is cued endogenously (Macquistan, 1997) or if the target location is known with certainty (Shomstein & Yantis, 2002). In the Experiments reported here,...
One Sound or Two? Object-Related Negativity Indexes Echo Perception
The ability to isolate a single sound source among concurrent sources and reverberant energy is necessary for understanding the auditory world. The precedence effect describes a related experimental finding, that when presented with identical sounds...
Out with the Old: Inhibition of Old Items in a Preview Search Is Limited
If some of the distractors in a visual search task are previewed prior to the presentation of the remaining distractors and the target, search time is reduced relative to when all of the items are displayed simultaneously. Here, we tested whether the...
Progressive Locomotor Recalibration during Blind Walking
Blind walking has become a common measure of perceived target location. This article addresses the possibility that blind walking might vary systematically within an experimental session as participants accrue exposure to nonvisual locomotion. Such variations...
Resisting Change: The Influence of Luminance Changes on Visual Marking and the Preview Benefit
Visual search can benefit when one set of distractors is presented as a preview, prior to the appearance of the second set of distractors plus the target (Watson & Humphreys, 1997). It has been shown that changing the shape of the old, previewed...
Retention of High Tactile Acuity throughout the Life Span in Blindness
Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip, using passive touch, have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have reexamined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity...
Synergy of Stimulus-Driven Salience and Goal-Directed Prioritization: Evidence from the Spatial Blink
In the spatial blink paradigm, participants search for a target of a designated color in a rapidly presented stream of letters at fixation. Target identification is typically impaired if a peripheral distractor appears shortly before the target, inducing...
Temporal Preparation Improves Temporal Resolution: Evidence from Constant Foreperiods
Recent research shows that temporal preparation within a constant foreperiod design improves the spatial resolution of visual perception. The present experiments were designed to investigate whether similar benefits of temporal preparation can be observed...
The Quest for Generalizations over Consonants: Asymmetries between Consonants and Vowels Are Not the By-Product of Acoustic Differences
Consonants and vowels may play different roles during language processing, consonants being preferentially involved in lexical processing, and vowels tending to mark syntactic constituency through prosodic cues. In support of this view, artificial language...
The Visual Perception of Lines on the Road
The present work demonstrates that observers grossly underestimate the length of lines parallel to their line of sight. In Experiment 1, observers, working from memory, estimated the length of a dashed line on the road to be 0.61 m. This result is consistent...
Top-Down Effects of Semantic Knowledge in Visual Search Are Modulated by Cognitive but Not Perceptual Load
Moores, Laiti, and Chelazzi (2003) found semantic interference from associate competitors during visual object search, demonstrating the existence of top-down semantic influences on the deployment of attention to objects. We examined whether effects...
Visual Working Memory for Line Orientations and Face Identities
Previous studies have shown that the number of objects we can actively hold in visual working memory is smaller for more complex objects. However, complex objects are not just more complex but are often more similar to other complex objects used as test...
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