Perception and Psychophysics

Covers all areas of research in sensory processes, perception, attention, and psychophysics. Includes reports on experimental work, reviews, and issue commentary important to researchers.

Articles from Vol. 70, No. 7, October

Auditory and Visual Attention-Based Apparent Motion Share Functional Parallels
A perception of coherent motion can be obtained in an otherwise ambiguous or illusory visual display by directing one's attention to a feature and tracking it. We demonstrate an analogous auditory effect in two separate sets of experiments. The temporal...
Average Size Perception and the Allure of a New Mechanism
In this brief response to commentaries by Ariely (2008) and Chong, Joo, Emmanouil, and Treisman (2008) on our earlier article, we highlight the two key assumptions underlying earlier claims about statistical summary representations of object size and...
Better Than Average? When Can We Say That Subsampling of Items Is Better Than Statistical Summary Representations?
Myczek and Simons (2008) have described a computational model that subsamples a few items from a set with high accuracy, showing that this approach can do as well as, or better than, a model that captures statistical representations of the set. Although...
Detection of Collision Events on Curved Trajectories: Optical Information from Invariant Rate-of-Bearing Change
Previous research (Andersen & Kim, 2001) has shown that a linear trajectory collision event (i.e., a collision between a moving object and an observer) is specified by objects that expand and maintain a constant bearing (the object location remains...
Effects of Prime-Target Spatial Separation and Attentional Deployment on Masked Repetition Priming
In two masked repetition priming experiments with letter stimuli, the positions of prime and target stimuli were varied horizontally from fixation. Priming effects did not interact with position when prime and target location covaried (Experiment 1A)...
Evidence for Criterion Shifts in Visual Perceptual Learning: Data and Implications
Work on visual perceptual learning for contrast detection has shown that reliable decreases in detection thresholds are accompanied by reliable increases in false alarm rates (Wenger & Rasche, 2006). The present study assesses the robustness and...
Haptic Orientation Perception Benefits from Visual Experience: Evidence from Early-Blind, Late-Blind, and Sighted People
Early-blind, late-blind, and blindfolded sighted participants were presented with two haptic allocentric spatial tasks: a parallel-setting task, in an immediate and a 10-sec delay condition, and a task in which the orientation of a single bar was judged...
Influence of Hand Position on the near Effect in 3-D Attention
Voluntary reorienting of attention in real depth situations is characterized by an attentional bias to locations nearer the viewer once attention is deployed to a spatially cued object in depth. Previously, this effect (initially referred to as the near...
Inverted-U Effects Generalize to the Judgment of Subjective Properties of Faces
Researchers studying absolute identification have long known that it takes more time to identify a stimulus in the middle of a range than one at the extremes. That is, there is an inverted-U relation between mean response time and response position....
Involuntary Attention and Brightness Contrast
Carrasco, Ling, and Read (2004) reported that involuntary attention increased perceived contrast. We replicated Carrasco et al. and then tested an alternative hypothesis: With stimuli near threshold, a peripheral cue biased observers to believe a stimulus...
Involuntary Attention and Brightness contrast/Transient Attention Does Increase Perceived Contrast of Suprathreshold Stimuli: A Reply to Prinzmetal, Long, and Leonhardt (2008)
WILLIAM PRINZMETAL, VIRGINIA LONG, AND JAMES LEONHARDTUniversity of California, Berkeley, CaliforniaW. Prinzmetal, wprinz@berkeley.eduCarrasco, Ling, and Read (2004) reported that involuntary attention increased perceived contrast. We replicated Carrasco...
Looking at Scenes While Searching for Numbers: Dividing Attention Multiplies Space
Observers tend to remember seeing a greater expanse of a scene than was shown (boundary extension [BE]). Is undivided visual attention necessary for BE? In Experiment 1, 108 observers viewed photographs with superimposed numerals (2s and 5s). Each appeared...
On Building Models of Spoken-Word Recognition: When There Is as Much to Learn from Natural "Oddities" as Artificial Normality
Much of what we know about spoken-word recognition comes from studies relying on speech stimuli either carefully produced in the laboratory or computer altered. Although such stimuli have allowed key constructs to be highlighted, the extent to which...
On Suppressing Unwanted Cues Via Randomization
In certain perceptual discrimination tasks, a change in a particular stimulus variable can be perceived as changes along multiple perceptual dimensions. If the study is primarily concerned with a particular perceptual dimension or cue, it is important...
On the Dynamic Information Underlying Visual Anticipation Skill
What information underwrites visual anticipation skill in dynamic sport situations? We examined this question on the premise that the optical information used for anticipation resides in the dynamic motion structures, or modes, that are inherent in the...
Orientation Illusions Vary in Size and Direction as a Function of Task-Dependent Attention
Adding an upright inner square frame to an outer tilted square frame causes a central rod's perceived orientation to be directionally opposite the usual rod-and-frame illusion (RFI). Zoccolotti, Antonucci, Daini, Martelli, and Spinelli (1997) attributed...
Psychophysical Influences on the Validity of Anomaloscopic Assessments of Color Vision
Anomaloscopes are used in clinical and research applications involving the assessment of color vision. Output data include the matching range (MR), the midpoint, and the anomaly quotient (AQ). The latter is commonly used to compare data obtained using...
Repetition Priming and the Haptic Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Objects
In four experiments, we examined the haptic recognition of 3-D objects. In Experiment 1, blindfolded participants named everyday objects presented haptically in two blocks. There was significant priming of naming, but no cost of an object changing orientation...
Set Recognition as a Window to Perceptual and Cognitive Processes
The Set visual perception game is a fertile research platform that allows investigation of perception, with gradual processing culminating in a momentary recognition stage, in a context that can be endlessly repeated with novel displays. Performance...
Statistical Processing: Not So Implausible after All
Myczek and Simons (2008) have shown that findings attributed to a statistical mode of perceptual processing can, instead, be explained by focused attention to samples of just a few items. Some new findings raise questions about this claim. (1) Participants,...
Take a Look at the Bright Side: Effects of Contrast Polarity on Gaze Direction Judgments
Observers are inaccurate when judging the gaze direction of eyes shown in negative rather than positive polarity. On the basis of this polarity effect, it has been proposed that gaze is perceived as directed from the dark part of the eye. Our experiment...
Temporal Preparation Facilitates Perceptual Identification of Letters
Recent evidence has suggested that perceptual processing of single stimulus features improves when participants are temporally prepared for the occurrence of the stimuli. This study was conducted to investigate whether the benefit of temporal preparation...
The Distribution of Attention within Objects in Multiple-Object Scenes: Prioritization by Spatial Probabilities and a Center Bias
This study investigates how the attentional distribution within objects is affected by spatial probabilities, bias toward objects' centers (Alvarez & Scholl, 2005), and object motion. In a multiple-object tracking task, observers tracked line objects...
The Role of Color in Visual Search in Real-World Scenes: Evidence from Contextual Cuing
Because the importance of color in visual tasks such as object identification and scene memory has been debated, we sought to determine whether color is used to guide visual search in contextual cuing with real-world scenes. In Experiment 1, participants...
Transient Attention Does Increase Perceived Contrast of Suprathreshold Stimuli: A Reply to Prinzmetal, Long, and Leonhardt (2008)
Carrasco, Ling, and Read (2004) showed that transient attention increases perceived contrast. However, Prinzmetal, Long, and Leonhardt (2008) suggest that for targets of low visibility, observers may bias their response toward the cued location, and...
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