Journal of Early Intervention

Journal of Early Intervention is an academic journal focusing on Early Intervention


Vol. 39, No. 1, March

Abuse and Young Children with Disabilities
IntroductionIn the United States, one in eight children will experience maltreatment by his or her 18th birthday ([Wildeman et al., 2014]). According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 5,689,900 state-confirmed cases of child maltreatment...
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Vol. 37, No. 4, December

Training Teachers to Enhance the Play Skills of Young Children with Developmental Disabilities during Outdoor Time by Embedding Instructional Interactions
IntroductionStructuring learning opportunities to enhance the acquisition of solitary play (i.e., playing alone and independently with toys) and social play (i.e., associative and cooperative play; [Parten, 1932]) for children with severe disabilities...
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Using Video Modeling, Prompting, and Behavior-Specific Praise to Increase Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity for Young Children with Down Syndrome
IntroductionWithin the past few decades, the prevalence of obesity for young children has increased from 7.2% (1988-1994) to 12.4% (2003-2006; [Ogden, Carroll, Curtin, Lamb, & Flegal, 2010]; [Ogden, Flegal, Carroll, & Johnson, 2002]). In the...
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Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior
IntroductionDisruptive behavior in early childhood consists of non-compliant, delinquent, argumentative, and aggressive behaviors. Disruptive behavior is associated with a number of problems later in life including emotional and behavioral disorders...
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Mediational Analyses of the Effects of Responsive Teaching on the Developmental Functioning of Preschool Children with Disabilities
IntroductionResponsive Teaching (RT) is a fully manualized relationship-focused (RF) developmental intervention curriculum which was published in 2007 ([Mahoney & MacDonald, 2007]). Similar to other RF curricula, RT was derived from research on parental...
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Vol. 37, No. 3, September

A Comprehensive Inclusion Program for Kindergarten Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
IntroductionWith the incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increasing to one in 68 U.S. children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014), there is mounting urgency for the validation of interventions and treatment programs grounded in...
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Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services
IntroductionResults from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (Rosenberg, Zhang, & Robinson, 2008) indicate that at 24 months of age, approximately 13% of children in the United States have developmental delays likely to make...
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Long-Term Effects of a Parent-Based Language Intervention on Language Outcomes and Working Memory for Late-Talking Toddlers
IntroductionLanguage delay is one of the most common developmental problems among toddlers (Horwitz et al., 2003; Reilly et al., 2007; Zubrick, Taylor, Rice, & Slegers, 2007). According to the definition of late talkers, about 15% of children aged...
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Assessment of Quality for Inclusive Programs in Greek Preschool Classrooms
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)IntroductionA number of stated policies have prioritized inclusion as a desirable model of provision for children with disabilities, placing special emphasis on the benefits of inclusion for the early...
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Vol. 37, No. 2, June

Facilitating Commenting and Requesting Skills in 3-Year-Old Children with Disabilities
IntroductionTargeting social communication skills has been a recent focus of a number of early intervention studies, and their results have indicated a significant beneficial impact on young preschoolers (Laundry, Smith, Swank, & Guttentag, 2008)....
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Do Portuguese Preschoolers with High Hyperactive Behaviors Make More Progress Than Those with Low Hyperactivity after Parental Intervention?
IntroductionAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is most frequently identified in school-age children, even though ADHD symptoms may be present in children under the age of 5 (e.g., Egger & Angold, 2006; Lahey et al., 1998). Despite the...
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Families Living in Poverty: Perceptions of Family-Centered Practices
IntroductionAs part of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), early intervention professionals were strongly encouraged to increase their knowledge of the principles and delivery of family-centered services....
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Effects of an Animated Book Reading Intervention on Emergent Literacy Skill Development: An Early Pilot Study
IntroductionFor more than three decades, researchers, practitioners, and policy makers have focused on the need to ensure that children acquire a solid literacy foundation during their preschool years (Connor, Morrison, & Slominski, 2006; Diamond,...
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Vol. 37, No. 1, March

Including Social Opportunities during Small Group Instruction of Preschool Children with Social-Communication Delays
IntroductionTeachers in early childhood settings are tasked with providing opportunities for young children to excel in academics and social interactions with peers, targeting behaviors that are likely to promote success in future placements. While the...
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Developing Feasible and Effective School-Based Interventions for Children with ASD: A Case Study of the Iterative Development Process
IntroductionThere is an increased awareness of the gaps between research and practice across various clinical disciplines (Kessler & Glasgow, 2011; Proctor et al., 2009), as well as education (Vanderlinde & van Braak, 2010). In response to this...
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Effects of a Triadic Parent-Implemented Home-Based Communication Intervention for Toddlers
IntroductionThe importance of expanding the evidence base for early communication interventions is underscored by the prevalence of communication impairments in children with various etiologies and the predictive relationship between communication skills...
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Naturalistic Instructional Approaches in Early Learning: A Systematic Review
IntroductionNaturalistic instructional (NI) approaches have been developed to support children's participation and learning in inclusive settings (Hemmeter, 2000; Odom, 2000; Pretti-Frontczak & Bricker, 2004; VanDerHeyden, Snyder, Smith, Sevin, &...
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Vol. 36, No. 4, December

Introduction to Special Issue on the Center on Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Developing Evidence-Based Tools for a Multi-Tier Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction
Learning to read is one of the most challenging skills for young children who are beginning their school careers. Reading incorporates a wide range of language-based and literacy-specific skills. When children have difficulty with any of the vocabulary,...
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Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills
IntroductionIn a Response to Intervention (RTI) model, differentiated levels of instructional support are provided to students based on their demonstrated need (Gersten et al., 2008) and are often divided into three tiers of instructional support. Tier...
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Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse Behind the Data
IntroductionOne of the major goals of the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC) was the development and evaluation of Tier 2 curricula to address language and early literacy needs of preschoolers to prepare them for success...
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Designing a Measurement Framework for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood Programs
IntroductionResponse to Intervention (RTI) and other multi-tiered systems of support have several common features, regardless of their populations, domain(s) of concern, implementation settings, and purposes (Frieden, 2010; U.S. Public Health Service,...
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The Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Developing Evidence-Based Tools for a Multi-Tier Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction
IntroductionReading is a keystone skill leading to future success in our society. Unfortunately, more than one in three children are struggling readers. Forty percent of U.S. fourth graders fail to reach the "basic" reading level (Aud et al., 2013; U.S....
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Identifying Preschool Children for Higher Tiers of Language and Early Literacy Instruction within a Response to Intervention Framework
IntroductionAlthough Response to Intervention (RTI) has been implemented in elementary grade settings for several years, early education programs have only recently applied this approach with children younger than kindergarten who may be struggling to...
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Vol. 36, No. 3, September

The Efficacy of a Home-School Intervention for Preschoolers with Challenging Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool First Step to Success
IntroductionDeveloping and disseminating evidence-based interventions for children in preschool and the primary elementary grades for promoting child social-emotional development have emerged as a high priority for schools (see Detrich, Keyworth, &...
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Preliminary Development of the Parent Involvement in Early Learning Scale for Low-Income Families Enrolled in a Child-Development-Focused Home Visiting Program
IntroductionA cornerstone of child-development-focused home visiting programs for young children living in socioeconomic hardship is to strengthen parents' involvement in developmentally appropriate early learning experiences with their children. As...
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Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk
IntroductionDuring the last four decades, the number of preschoolers served in center-based programs (e.g., child care centers, Head Start programs, publicly funded prekindergarten programs, private preschools) has increased dramatically (Fuligni, Brooks-Gunn,...
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Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale
IntroductionOver the past several decades, federal agencies, foundations, practitioners, and researchers have questioned the psychometric adequacy and type of instruments available to assess the social emotional functioning of preschool children (National...
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Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot
IntroductionFederal legislation has supported the right of young children with disabilities to be cared for and educated with typically developing peers since the passage of PL 99-457 (Individuals With Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]) in 1986. The...
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Vol. 36, No. 2, June

An Investigation of the Intentional Communication and Symbolic Play Skills of Children with Down Syndrome and Cerebral Palsy in Malaysia
Early Communication and Play DevelopmentThe emergence of symbolic communication at around 12 to 13 months in children following typical development (Bates, Benigni, Bretherton, Camaioni, & Volterra, 1979) is preceded by pre-symbolic communication...
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Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Impacts on Early Childhood Educators' Practices and Associations with Toddlers' Expressive Communication
IntroductionThe research-to-practice gap in early childhood/early childhood special education is widely recognized (Odom, 2009). Furthermore, most early childhood (EC) educators are not adequately prepared to educate children with disabilities (Chang,...
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Language of Children with Disabilities to Peers at Play: Impact of Ecology
Play is an important medium for optimal child development, and is especially critical for the social and communication development of young children (Ginsburg, 2007; Lifter, Mason, & Barton, 2011; Odom, McConnell, & Chandler, 1993). It not only...
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The Effects of Constant Time Delay and Instructive Feedback on the Acquisition of English and Spanish Sight Words
Teachers of children with special needs, including general education teachers, often struggle to find strategies for teaching that are both effective and maximize the impact of instructional time. Over the years, instructive feedback has been shown to...
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Vol. 36, No. 1, March

Influence of Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Early Intervention Enrollment after NICU Discharge
The rate of preterm birth has increased over the last decade (J. A. Martin, Osterman, & Sutton, 2010). Increased survival has broadened awareness of the risks to cognitive and motor develop- ment posed by prematurity (Baron, Ahronovich, Erickson,...
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Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence
Research has illustrated that challenging behavior and social-emotional competence at the early childhood level are a continuing challenge for families and early educators in the United States (Kaiser, Cai, Hancock, & Foster, 2002; Rimm-Kaufman,...
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Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life
Grandparents raising grandchildren is a growing phenomenon that affects 5.8 million children in the United States. The latest census data show that there are 1.6 million children living in grandparent-headed households with no biological parent present...
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A Monitoring Tool of Infant and Toddler Movement Skills
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)Physical activity in infancy is essential for early brain development because movement strengthens neuronal development (Eliot, 1999). Movement in the early ages is also important because of the interconnectedness...
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Vol. 35, No. 4, December

Designing Studies to Evaluate Parent-Mediated Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Given recent advances in science, policy, and practice of early identification in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), questions about the effectiveness of early intervention have far-reaching service and policy implications. However, rigorous research evaluating...
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Early Predictors of ASD in Young Children Using a Nationally Representative Data Set
Current clinical diagnosis of autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) occurs between 3 and 4 years of age, but increasing evidence indicates that intervention begun earlier may improve outcomes. Using secondary analysis of the early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth...
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Mechanisms of Change in COMPASS Consultation for Students with Autism
More than a decade has passed since the National Research Council described the common elements of effective educational programs for young children with autism. Since that time, few studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of change and factors...
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Conceptualizing Child and Family Outcomes of Early Intervention Services for Children with ASD and Their Families
State early intervention programs (EIPs) have been encouraged to develop and implement comprehensive outcomes measurement systems. as the number of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families receiving services in state EIPs increases,...
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Vol. 35, No. 2, June

Treatment Fidelity in Early Childhood Special Education Research: Introduction to the Special Issue
Although this special issue on treatment fidelity is extremely timely for the field of early childhood special education (ECSE), this issue comes somewhat late in the history of conversations about the importance of information about treatment implementation....
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An Implementation Science Framework for Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Fidelity in Early Childhood Intervention Studies
An implementation science framework is used to differentiate between two types of practices (implementation and intervention) and to describe how the fidelity of the two practices are related and would be expected to influence outcomes of interest. The...
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Implementation Fidelity of a Coaching-Based Professional Development Program for Improving Head Start Teachers' Literacy and Language Instruction
Structural, process, and content dimensions of a coaching-based professional development (PD) intervention were examined in an implementation fidelity study. The intervention focused on Head Start teachers' vocabulary and phonemic awareness instruction,...
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Measuring Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs Targeting Young Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Conceptual Issues and Recommendations
Young children with and at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) present challenges for early childhood teachers. Evidence-based programs designed to address these young children's behavior problems exist, but there are a number of barriers to...
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Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices
A systematic analysis was conducted of measurement and reporting practices related to procedural fidelity in single-case research for the past 30 years. Previous reviews of fidelity primarily reported whether fidelity data were collected by authors;...
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Developing and Gathering Psychometric Evidence for a Fidelity Instrument: The Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool-Pilot Version
Fidelity assessment has received renewed attention in recent years, particularly as distinctions have been made in implementation science between intervention fidelity and implementation fidelity. Considering both types of fidelity has been recommended...
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Parent-Implemented Interventions for Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of Fidelity Features
The purpose of this review was to analyze fidelity features in parent-implemented interventions for young children with disabilities. The authors conducted a review of 24 studies published in nine peer-reviewed journals. Each identified article was scored...
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Vol. 35, No. 1, March

The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet and Autism: Limited Return on Family Investment
The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is widely used by families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite its popularity, there is limited evidence in support of the diet. The purpose of this article was to identify and evaluate well-controlled...
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Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms (N= 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e.,...
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Associations among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children at Risk of School Failure
Associations among children's writing and alphabetic skills were examined in a sample of 502 prekindergarten children who were at risk of academic failure because they came from poor families, spoke a language other than English at home, or had an identified...
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Barriers to Accessing Services for Young Children
This study investigates barriers to accessing services for children under age 3 presenting with language delays and behavioral difficulties, including language barriers for Spanish-speaking families. Using a telephone script, researchers called 30 agencies...
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Vol. 34, No. 4, December

Effects of an Automated Vocabulary and Comprehension Intervention: An Early Efficacy Study
It is well established that oral language skills in preschool, including vocabulary and comprehension, predict later reading proficiency and that substantial differences in oral language skills exist when children enter school. Although explicit instruction...
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Evaluation of a Multicomponent Online Communication Professional Development Program for Early Interventionists
Collaborative early intervention (EI) service delivery is enhanced by professional development focused on knowledge and skills in the content and process of delivering services. This article describes a multicomponent online professional development...
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Early Numeracy Intervention for Low-Performing Kindergartners
Early numeracy in kindergarten has proven to be a strong predictor of mathematical achievement. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a remedial numeracy program for children who were low performing and to evaluate the role of visual...
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Vol. 34, No. 3, September

Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft® Office 2007(TM), Office 2010(TM), and Office for Mac(TM) 2008 and 2011
The interpretation of single-case data requires systematic visual analysis across and within conditions. Graphs are a vital component for analyzing and communicating single-case design data and a necessary tool for applied researchers and practitioners....
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Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Preschool Problem Behavior in a National Sample: The Significance of Gender and SES
Previous research has demonstrated that informant disagreement is common with the use of rating scales to assess problem behavior in school-age populations. However, much less is known about this phenomenon in preschool populations. This is important...
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Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Research Evidence
Recently emerging intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed through a systematic assessment of intervention outcomes, research rigor, and intervention features. The review includes published peer-reviewed experimental...
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Vol. 34, No. 2, June

Follow-Up of the Cues and Care Trial: Mother and Infant Outcomes at 6 Months
The long-term effects of the Cues intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance the interactive behavior of mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were investigated. A randomized trial comparing the Cues intervention to an attention control condition...
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Play and Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Framework for Early Intervention
The association between object play and intentional communication was examined in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Meta-analysis of concurrent and longitudinal correlational studies revealed significant associations between object play and...
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Early Interventionists' Perspectives on Teaching Caregivers
Relatively little is known about the role of early interventionists as teachers of caregivers. The current study was conducted to better understand interventionists' perspectives about teaching caregivers. A national sample of 1,525 multidisciplinary...
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Vol. 34, No. 1, March

Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with...
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Promoting Early Intervention Referral through a Randomized Controlled Home-Visiting Program
The MOM Program is a randomized, controlled trial of an intervention to promote mothers' care for the health and development of their children, including accessing early intervention (EI) services. Study aims were to determine whether, relative to controls,...
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Ecological Features of Preschools and the Social Engagement of Children with Autism
One way to support the social engagement of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is by identifying features of natural environments that increase the likelihood of social interaction. This descriptive study was an examination of the (a) social...
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