Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

The Transactions of the American Philosophical Society is a monographic series published by the American Philosophical Society. Please note that each chapter in each monograph appears individually.

Articles from Vol. 97, No. 2, 2007

American Society and the Democratic Portrait
The simple portrait dominated American photography, just as it had dominated American painting during the two preceding centuries. More often than not, men and women would sit or stand frozen in time and space, revealing little about their character.Americans...
A New Presentation
Because of its simplicity, cheapness, and ability to imitate a carte de visite, the ferrotype prospered. But because the photographic business was so competitive, costs associated with materials and labor had to be reduced. One such cost reduction was...
A Tintype Aesthetic
In 1868, Mathew Carey Lea wrote in A Manual of Photography, "Melainotypes ana ferrotypes . . . may be said to constitute the most ordinary and least artistic of photographic products."1 In some respects, Lea's uncompromising statement was accurate. Artistry...
Photography and the Arts: The First Twenty Years
Americans were always more enthusiastic about material than cultural progress, more fascinated by the machine than high art. Comparing Americans to Europeans in 1857, Adam G. de Gurowski, a foreign visitor to the United States, observed, "And so it happens...
Postscript: "I Hear America Singing"
In 1880, E. & H. T. Anthony & Company introduced George Eastman's gelatin dry plates for glass negatives.1 This was followed by a new generation of portable dry-plate view cameras. Together they revolutionized American photography by making amateur...
Preface
No research is an isolated endeavor, and this book is no exception. Although the tintypes themselves were its inspiration, it could not have been written without the assistance of friends and colleagues.I would like to acknowledge my early readers, Nicholas...
The Collodion Gallery
The simplicity of the collodion process made it easy to become a ferrotype operator, but innovation and the ability to adjust to the demands of a costconscious public kept the operator in business. It was simple and, compared to earlier processes, inexpensive....
The Ferrotype and Griswold
Peter Neff's earliest competitor in the manufacture of japanned iron plates was his "neighbor" Victor Moreau Griswold (1819-72). The small central Ohio towns of Gambler, where Neff lived, and Lancaster, where Griswold operated a photographic studio,...
The Invention: Martin and Smith
On February 19, 1856, a U.S. patent was issued to Hamilton L. Smith of Gambier, Ohio, and concurrently assigned to William Neff and Peter Neff Jr. for "Photographic Pictures on Japanned Surfaces." It was not the only U.S. patent granted that year relevant...
The Melainotype and Neff
Although Peter Neff Jr. (1827-1903) was not the inventor of the japanned iron plate, he was the person most instrumental in manufacturing and marketing it.1 In an age that weekly saw the announcement of a new photographic process or invention, it was...
The Tintype: Image and Attitude
The words melainotype and ferrotype were introduced by Peter Neff and Victor M. Griswold respectively to describe the japanned plates used with the collodion process. The word tintype was first used in 1863.Originally, size defined what was called a...
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