Genetics

Professional journal providing news and analysis on field of genetics. Features special reports such as policy reviews and awards.

Articles from Vol. 172, No. 1, January

Analyses of SUM1-1-Mediated Long-Range Repression
ABSTRACTIn Saccharomyces cerevisiae, local repression is promoter specific and localized to a small region on the DNA, while silencing is promoter nonspecific, encompasses large domains of chromatin, and is stably inherited for multiple generations....
Analysis of Homologous Gene Clusters in Caenorhabditis Elegans Reveals Striking Regional Cluster Domains
ABSTRACTAn algorithm for detecting local clusters of homologous genes was applied to the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Clusters of two or more homologous genes are abundant, totaling 1391 clusters containing 4607 genes, over one-fifth of all genes...
A Novel Murine Gene, Sickle Tail, Linked to the Danforth's Short Tail Locus, Is Required for Normal Development of the Intervertebral Disc
ABSTRACTWe established the mutant mouse line, B6;CB-Skt^sup GtAyu802IIMEG^ (Skt^sup Gt^), through gene-trap mutagenesis in embryonic stem cells. The novel gene identified, called Sickle tail (Skt), is composed of 19 exons and encodes a protein of 1352...
A Selfish Gene Governing Pollen-Pistil Compatibility Confers Reproductive Isolation between Maize Relatives
ABSTRACTSome populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele....
Chromosome-Wise Dissection of the Genome of the Extremely Big Mouse Line DU6i
ABSTRACTThe extreme high-body-weight-selected mouse line DU6i is a polygenic model for growth research, harboring many small-effect QTL. We dissected the genome of this line into 19 autosomes and the Y chromosome by the construction of a new panel of...
Comparison of Quantitative Trait Loci for Adaptive Traits between Oak and Chestnut Based on an Expressed Sequence Tag Consensus Map
ABSTRACTA comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of...
Directional Positive Selection on an Allele of Arbitrary Dominance
ABSTRACTMost models of positive directional selection assume codominance of the beneficial allele. We examine the importance of this assumption by implementing a coalescent model of positive directional selection with arbitrary dominance. We find that,...
Diverse Functions of Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Genes in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACTThe spindle assembly checkpoint regulates the metaphase-to-anaphase transition from yeast to humans. We examined the genetic interactions with four spindle assembly checkpoint genes to identify non-essential genes involved in chromosome segregation,...
DNA Polymerase 4 of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Is Important for Accurate Repair of Methyl-Methanesulfonate-Induced DNA Damage
ABSTRACTThe DNA polymerase 4 protein (Pol4) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the X family of DNA polymerases whose closest human relative appears to be DNA polymerase ?. Results from previous genetic studies conflict over the role of Pol4 in...
Drosophila Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Mediates Chromatin Structure and SIR2-Dependent Silencing
ABSTRACTProtein ADP ribosylation catalyzed by cellular poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and tankyrases modulates chromatin structure, telomere elongation, DNA repair, and the transcription of genes involved in stress resistance, hormone responses,...
Drosophila Target of Rapamycin Kinase Functions as a Multimer
ABSTRACTTarget of rapamycin (TOR) is a conserved regulator of cell growth and metabolism that integrates energy, growth factor, and nutrient signals. The 280-kDa TOR protein functions as the catalytic component of two large multiprotein complexes and...
Effect of Mutation of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat and Asparatate-Proline 2 Domains of Sti1 on Hsp90 Signaling and Interaction in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACTThrough simultaneous interactions with Hsp70 and Hsp90 via separate tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, the cochaperone protein Hop/Sti1 has been proposed to play a critical role in the transfer of client proteins from Hsp70 to Hsp90. However,...
Eliminating Gene Conversion Improves High-Throughput Genetics in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACTSynthetic genetic analysis was improved by eliminating leaky expression of the HIS3 reporter and gene conversion between the HIS3 reporter and his?1. Leaky expression was eliminated using 3-aminotriazole and gene conversion was eliminated by...
Evidence for a Selective Sweep in the Wapl Region of Drosophila Melanogaster
ABSTRACTA scan of the X chromosome of a European Drosophila melanogaster population revealed evidence for the recent action of positive directional selection at individual loci. In this study we analyze one such region that showed no polymorphism in...
Evidence of Meiotic Crossover Control in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae through Mec1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Replication Protein A
ABSTRACTReplication protein A (RPA) is the major single-stranded DNA-binding protein in eukaryotes, essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination. During mitosis and meiosis in budding yeast, RPA becomes phosphorylated in reactions that require...
Extreme Population-Dependent Linkage Disequilibrium Detected in an Inbreeding Plant Species, Hordeum Vulgare
ABSTRACTIn human genetics a detailed knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is considered a prerequisite for effective population-based, high-resolution gene mapping and cloning. Similar opportunities exist for plants; however, differences in breeding...
Fine Mapping and Physical Characterization of Two Linked Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Milk Fat Yield in Dairy Cattle on BTA26
ABSTRACTPreviously, a highly significant QTL affecting fat yield and protein yield and mapped to the bovine BTA26 chromosome has been reported to segregate in the French Holstein cattle population. To confirm and refine the location of this QTL, the...
GC-Biased Segregation of Noncoding Polymorphisms in Drosophila
ABSTRACTThe study of base composition evolution in Drosophila has been achieved mostly through the analysis of coding sequences. Third codon position GC content, however, is influenced by both neutral forces (e.g., mutation bias) and natural selection...
Genetic Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae H2A Serine 129 Mutant Suggests a Functional Relationship between H2A and the Sister-Chromatid Cohesion Partners Csm3-Tof1 for the Repair of Topoisomerase I-Induced DNA Damage
ABSTRACTCollision between a topoisomerase I-DNA intermediate and an advancing replication fork represents a unique form of replicative damage. We have shown previously that yeast H2A serine 129 is involved in the recovery from this type of damage. We...
Genetic Evidence That Nonhomologous Disjunction and Meiotic Drive Are Properties of Wild-Type Drosophila Melanogaster Male Meiosis
ABSTRACTWe have followed sex and second chromosome disjunction, and the effects of these chromosomes on sperm function, in four genotypes: wild-type males, males deficient for the Y-linked crystal locus, males with an X chromosome heterochromatic deficiency...
Genetic Variation and Selection Response in Model Breeding Populations of Brassica Rapa Following a Diversity Bottleneck
ABSTRACTDomestication and breeding share a common feature of population bottlenecks followed by significant genetic gain. To date, no crop models for investigating the evolution of genetic variance, selection response, and population diversity following...
Genomewide Nonadditive Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis Allotetraploids
ABSTRACTPolyploidy has occurred throughout the evolutionary history of all eukaryotes and is extremely common in plants. Reunification of the evolutionarily divergent genomes in allopolyploids creates regulatory incompatibilities that must be reconciled....
Growth Defect and Mutator Phenotypes of RecQ-Deficient Neurospora Crassa Mutants Separately Result from Homologous Recombination and Nonhomologous End Joining during Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks
ABSTRACTRecQ helicases function in the maintenance of genome stability in many organisms. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has two RecQ homologs, QDE3 and RECQ2. We found that the qde-3 recQ2 double mutant showed a severe growth defect. The growth...
Highly Structured Asian Drosophila Melanogaster Populations: A New Tool for Hitchhiking Mapping?
ABSTRACTMark-recapture experiments showed that D. melanogasterhas high dispersal capabilities. Consistent with a highly migratory species, only very low levels of differentiation were described for D. melanogaster populations from the same continent....
Identification and Analysis of Escherichia Coli Ribonuclease E Dominant-Negative Mutants
ABSTRACTThe Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribonuclease E protein (RNase E) is implicated in the degradation and processing of a large fraction of RNAs in the cell. To understand RNase E function in greater detail, we developed an efficient selection method...
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Regulate Arabidopsis Root System Size and Plasticity
ABSTRACTRoot system size (RSS) is a complex trait that is greatly influenced by environmental cues. Hence, both intrinsic developmental pathways and environmental-response pathways contribute to RSS. To assess the natural variation in both types of pathways,...
Inbreeding Depression and Male Survivorship in Drosophila: Implications for Senescence Theory
ABSTRACTThe extent to which inbreeding depression affects longevity and patterns of survivorship is an important issue from several research perspectives, including evolutionary biology, conservation biology, and the genetic analysis of quantitative...
Interaction between Hormonal Signaling Pathways in Drosophila Melanogaster as Revealed by Genetic Interaction between Methoprene-Tolerant and Broad-Complex
ABSTRACTJuvenile hormone (JH) regulates insect development by a poorly understood mechanism. Application of JH agonist insecticides to Drosophila melanogaster during the ecdysone-driven onset of metamorphosis results in lethality and specific morphogenetic...
Intragenic Suppression of Gal3^sup C^ Interaction with Gal80 in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae GAL Gene Switch
ABSTRACTGal4-mediated activation of GAL gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the interaction of Gal3 with Gal80, the Gal4 inhibitor protein. While it is known that galactose and ATP activates Gal3 interaction with Gal80, neither the...
l7Rn6 Encodes a Novel Protein Required for Clara Cell Function in Mouse Lung Development
ABSTRACTThe highly secretory Clara cells play a pivotal role in protecting the lung against inflammation and oxidative stress. This study reports the positional cloning of a novel protein required for Clara cell physiology in mouse lung development....
Loss-of-Function Mutations in a Glutathione S-Transferase Suppress the Prune-Killer of Prune Lethal Interaction
ABSTRACTThe prune gene of Drosophila melanogaster is, predicted to encode a phosphodiesterase. Null alleles of prune are viable but cause an eye-color phenotype. The abnormal wing discs gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Killer of prune is...
Loss of Hsp70 in Drosophila Is Pleiotropic, with Effects on Thermotolerance, Recovery from Heat Shock and Neurodegeneration
ABSTRACTThe heat-shock response is a programmed change in gene expression carried out by cells in response to environmental stress, such as heat. This response is universal and is characterized by the synthesis of a small group of conserved protein chaperones....
Lysis Timing and Bacteriophage Fitness
ABSTRACTThe effect of lysis timing on bacteriophage (phage) fitness has received little theoretical or experimental attention. Previously, the impact of lysis timing on phage fitness was studied using a theoretical model based on the marginal value theorem...
Molecular Characterization of the Major Wheat Domestication Gene Q
ABSTRACTThe Q gene is largely responsible for the widespread cultivation of wheat because it confers the free-threshing character. It also pleiotropically influences many other domestication-related traits such as glume shape and tenacity, rachis fragility,...
Mutations of a Drosophila NPC1 Gene Confer Sterol and Ecdysone Metabolic Defects
ABSTRACTThe molecular mechanisms by which dietary cholesterol is trafficked within cells are poorly understood. Previous work indicates that the NPC1 family of proteins plays an important role in this process, although the precise functions performed...
Nuclear-Mitochondrial Epistasis and Drosophila Aging: Introgression of Drosophila Simulans mtDNA Modifies Longevity in D. Melanogaster Nuclear Backgrounds
ABSTRACTUnder the mitochondrial theory of aging, physiological decline with age results from the accumulated cellular damage produced by reactive oxygen species generated during electron transport in the mitochondrion. A large body of literature has...
Nucleotide Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Populations of the Partial Selfer Caenorhabditis Elegans
ABSTRACTAn understanding of the relative contributions of different evolutionary forces on an organism's genome requires an accurate description of the patterns of genetic variation within and between natural populations. To this end, I report a survey...
Perinatal Loss of Ts65Dn Down Syndrome Mice
ABSTRACTTs65Dn mice inherit a marker chromosome, T(17^sup 16^)65Dn, producing segmentai trisomy for orthologs of about half of the genes on human chromosome 21. These mice display a number of phenotypes that are directly comparable to those in humans...
Pleiotropic Effects of the Duplicate Maize FLORICAULA/LEAFY Genes Zfl1 and Zfl2 on Traits under Selection during Maize Domestication
ABSTRACTPhenotypic variation on which selection can act during evolution may be caused by variation in activity level of developmental regulatory genes. In many cases, however, such genes affect multiple traits. This situation can lead to co-evolution...
Post-Transcriptional Silencing and Functional Characterization of the Drosophila Melanogaster Homolog of Human Surf1
ABSTRACTMutations in Surf1, a human gene involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), cause Leigh syndrome, the most common infantile mitochondrial encephalopathy, characterized by a specific COX deficiency. We report the generation and characterization...
Selection at Work in Self-Incompatible Arabidopsis Lyrata: Mating Patterns in a Natural Population
ABSTRACTIdentification and characterization of the self-incompatibility genes in Brassicaceae species now allow typing of self-incompatibility haplotypes in natural populations. In this study we sampled and mapped all 88 individuals in a small population...
SER-7, a Caenorhabditis Elegans 5-HT^sub 7^-Like Receptor, Is Essential for the 5-HT Stimulation of Pharyngeal Pumping and Egg Laying
ABSTRACTSerotonin (5-HT) stimulates both pharyngeal pumping and egg laying in Caenorhabditis elegans. Four distinct 5-HT receptors have been partially characterized, but little is known about their function in vivo. SER-7 exhibits most sequence identity...
Sister Chromatids Are Often Incompletely Aligned in Meristematic and Endopolyploid Interphase Nuclei of Arabidopsis Thaliana
ABSTRACTWe analyzed whether sister chromatids are continuously aligned in meristematic and endopolyploid Arabidopsis interphase nuclei by studying sister-chromatid alignment at various chromosomal positions. FISH with individual BACs to flow-sorted 4C...
Spe-10 Encodes a DHHC-CRD Zinc-Finger Membrane Protein Required for Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Membrane Morphogenesis during Caenorhabditis Elegans Spermatogenesis
ABSTRACTC. elegans spermatogenesis employs lysosome-related fibrous body-membranous organelles (FB-MOs) for transport of many cellular components. Previous work showed that spe-10 mutants contain FB-MOs that prematurely disassemble, resulting in defective...
The Genetic Architecture of Sucrose Responsiveness in the Honeybee (Apis Mellifera L.)
ABSTRACTOne of the best examples of a natural behavioral syndrome is the pollen-hoarding syndrome in honeybees that ties together multiple behavioral phenotypes, ranging from foraging behavior to behavioral ontogeny and learning performance. A central...
The Lesser-Known Mendel: His Experiments on Hieracium
The year 2006 is the 140th anniversary of Mendel's pathbreaking article. It is appropriate that a journal devoted to genetics begin the year with an article about Mendel and his work. Much has been written about his deep insights and the failure of the...
The Mop1 (Mediator of Paramutation1) Mutant Progressively Reactivates One of the Two Genes Encoded by the MuDR Transposon in Maize
ABSTRACTTransposons make up a sizable portion of most genomes, and most organisms have evolved mechanisms to silence them. In maize, silencing of the Mutator family of transposons is associated with methylation of the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs)...
The Paternal Gene of the DDK Syndrome Maps to the Schlafen Gene Cluster on Mouse Chromosome 11
ABSTRACTThe DDK syndrome is an early embryonic lethal phenotype observed in crosses between females of the DDK inbred mouse strain and many non-DDK males. Lethality results from an incompatibility between a maternal DDK factor and a non-DDK paternal...
The Role of Selection in the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial Genomes
ABSTRACTHigh mutation rate in mammalian mitochondrial DNA generates a highly divergent pool of alleles even within species that have dispersed and expanded in size recently. Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human mitochondrial genomes revealed a significant...
The Twisted Gene Encodes Drosophila Protein O-Mannosyltransferase 2 and Genetically Interacts with the Rotated Abdomen Gene Encoding Drosophila Protein O-Mannosyltransferase 1
ABSTRACTThe family of mammalian O-mannosyltransferases includes two enzymes, POMT1 and POMT2, which are thought to be essential for muscle and neural development. Similar to mammalian organisms, Drosophila has two O-mannosyltransferase genes, rotated...
Triglyceride Pools, Flight and Activity Variation at the Gpdh Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster
ABSTRACTWe have created a set of P-element excision-derived Gpdh alleles that generate a range of GPDH activity phenotypes ranging from zero to full activity. By placing these synthetic alleles in isogenic backgrounds, we characterize the effects of...
Variation in Mutation Dynamics across the Maize Genome as a Function of Regional and Flanking Base Composition
ABSTRACTWe examine variation in mutation dynamics across a single genome (Zea mays ssp. mays) in relation to regional and flanking base composition using a data set of 10,472 SNPs generated by resequencing 1776 transcribed regions. We report several...