Genetics

Professional journal providing news and analysis on field of genetics. Features special reports such as policy reviews and awards.

Articles from Vol. 171, No. 3, November

A Comprehensive Expressed Sequence Tag Linkage Map for Tiger Salamander and Mexican Axolotl: Enabling Gene Mapping and Comparative Genomics in Ambystoma
ABSTRACTExpressed sequence tag (EST) markers were developed for Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (Eastern tiger salamander) and for A. mexicanum (Mexican axolot1) to generate the first comprehensive linkage map for these model amphibians. We identified 14...
A Drosophila Model of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2
ABSTRACTDominant mutations in the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase lead to the familial cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). Mammalian tissue culture studies suggest that Ret^sup MEN2^ mutations significantly alter Ret-signaling properties,...
A Kingpin of Academic Inclusive Fitness: The History and Contributions of Bruce Grant
ONE of the most difficult decisions facing postdocs on the academic job market is where they should apply for jobs. They seek the advice of their supervisors, but their supervisors' world view is colored by their own decisions and experiences. Because...
An Ancient Mitochondrial Polymorphism in Adalia Bipunctata Linked to a Sex-Ratio-Distorting Bacterium
ABSTRACTSex-ratio-distorting microbes are common parasites of arthropods. Although the reasons they have invaded and spread though populations are well understood, their subsequent dynamics within those populations are virtually unknown. We have found...
A Statistical Multiprobe Model for Analyzing Cis and Trans Genes in Genetical Genomics Experiments with Short-Oligonucleotide Arrays
ABSTRACTShort-oligonucleotide arrays typically contain multiple probes per gene. In genetical genomics applications a statistical model for the individual probe signals can help in separating "true" differential mRNA expression from "ghost" effects caused...
Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein VIII Deficiency Is Associated with a Distinctive Lifelong Gait Disorder in Waddles Mice
ABSTRACTThe waddles (wdl) mouse is a unique animal model that exhibits ataxia and appendicular dystonia without pathological abnormalities of either the central or the peripheral nervous systems. A 19-bp deletion in exon 8 of the carbonic anhydrase-related...
CBT1 Interacts Genetically with CBP1 and the Mitochondrially Encoded Cytochrome B Gene and Is Required to Stabilize the Mature Cytochrome B mRNA of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACTMutation of a CCG sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b inRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in destabilization of the message and respiratory deficiency of the mutant strain. This phenotype mimics...
Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium Graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations
ABSTRACTA genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was constructed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between...
Epistatic Interactions among Herbicide Resistances in Arabidopsis Thaliana: The Fitness Cost of Multiresistance
ABSTRACTThe type of interactions among deleterious mutations is considered to be crucial in numerous areas of evolutionary biology, including the evolution of sex and recombination, the evolution of ploidy, the evolution of selfing, and the conservation...
Equilibrium Processes Cannot Explain High Levels of Short- and Medium-Range Linkage Disequilibrium in the Domesticated Grass Sorghum Bicolor
ABSTRACTPatterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are of interest because they provide evidence of both equilibrium (e.g., mating system or long-term population structure) and nonequilibrium (e.g., demographic or selective) processes, as well as because...
Evidence of a Major Gene from Bayesian Segregation Analyses of Liability to Osteochondral Diseases in Pigs
ABSTRACTBayesian segregation analyses were used to investigate the mode of inheritance of osteochondral lesions (osteochondrosis, OC) in pigs. Data consisted of 1163 animals with OC and their pedigrees included 2891 animals. Mixed-inheritance threshold...
Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of 13 Genes in the Rat Prostate
ABSTRACTDifferential expression of mRNA among animal strains is one of the mechanisms for their diversity. cDNA microarray analysis of the prostates of BUF/Nac (BUF) and ACI/N (ACI) rats, which show different susceptibility to prostate cancers, found...
Extent and Consistency across Generations of Linkage Disequilibrium in Commercial Layer Chicken Breeding Populations
ABSTRACTRecent studies report a surprisingly high degree of marker-to-marker linkage disequilibrium (LD) in ruminant livestock populations. This has important implications for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection. This study evaluated LD between...
Genetic Analysis of Variation in Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Thaliana
ABSTRACTIn Arabidopsis thaliana, significant efforts to determine the extent of genomic variation between phenotypically divergent accessions are under way, but virtually nothing is known about variation at the transcription level. We used microarrays...
Genetic Basis of Spectral Tuning in the Violet-Sensitive Visual Pigment of African Clawed Frog, Xenopus Laevis
ABSTRACTUltraviolet (UV) and violet vision in vertebrates is mediated by UV and violet visual pigments that absorb light maximally (?^sub max^) at ~360 and 390-440 nm, respectively. So far, a total of 11 amino acid sites only in transmembrane (TM) helices...
Genetic Mapping of Species Boundaries in Louisiana Irises Using IRRE Retrotransposon Display Markers
ABSTRACTGenetic mapping studies provide insight into the pattern and extent of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybridization between closely related species. Genetic maps of two species of Louisiana Irises, Iris fulva and I. brevicaulis, were constructed...
Genetic Modifier Screens on Hairless Gain-of-Function Phenotypes Reveal Genes Involved in Cell Differentiation, Cell Growth and Apoptosis in Drosophila Melanogaster
ABSTRACTOverexpression of Hairless (H) causes a remarkable degree of tissue loss and apoptosis during imaginal development. H functions as antagonist in the Notch-signaling pathway in Drosophila, and the link to growth and apoptosis is poorly understood....
Genomewide Scan for Anal Atresia in Swine Identifies Linkage and Association with a Chromosome Region on Sus Scrofa Chromosome 1
ABSTRACTAnal atresia is a rare and severe disorder in swine occurring with an incidence of 0.1-1.0%. A whole-genome scan based on affected half-sibs was performed to identify susceptibility loci for anal atresia. The analysis included 27 families with...
Heterozygous Insertions Alter Crossover Distribution but Allow Crossover Interference in Caenorhabditis Elegans
ABSTRACTThe normal distribution of crossover events on meiotic bivalents depends on homolog recognition, alignment, and interference. We developed a method for precisely locating all crossovers on Caenorhabditis elegans chromosomes and demonstrated that...
Highly Efficient Sex Chromosome Interchanges Produced by I-CreI Expression in Drosophila
ABSTRACTThe homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes a site in the gene encoding the 23S rRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A very similar sequence is present in the 28S rRNA genes that are located on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster....
Human Endogenous Retroviral Elements as Indicators of Ectopic Recombination Events in the Primate Genome
ABSTRACTHERV elements make up a significant fraction of the human genome and, as interspersed repetitive elements, have the capacity to provide substrates for ectopic recombination and gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which these events...
Interaction between Genetic Background and the Mating-Type Locus in Cryptococcus Neoformans Virulence Potential
ABSTRACTThe study of quantitative traits provides a window on the interactions between multiple unlinked genetic loci. The interaction between hosts and pathogenic microbes, such as fungi, involves aspects of quantitative genetics for both partners in...
Interactions among DNA Ligase I, the Flap Endonuclease and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in the Expansion and Contraction of CAG Repeat Tracts in Yeast
ABSTRACTAmong replication mutations that destabilize CAG repeat tracts, mutations of RAD27, encoding the flap endonuclease, and CDC9, encoding DNA ligase I, increase the incidence of repeat tract expansions to the greatest extent. Both enzymes bind to...
Lin-8, Which Antagonizes Caenorhabditis Elegans Ras-Mediated Vulval Induction, Encodes a Novel Nuclear Protein That Interacts with the LIN-35 Rb Protein
ABSTRACTRas-mediated vulval development in C. elegans is inhibited by the functionally redundant sets of class A, B, and C synthetic Multivulva (synMuv) genes. Three of the class B synMuv genes encode an Rb/DP/E2F complex that, by analogy with its mammalian...
Mapping with a Few Plants: Using Selective Mapping for Microsatellite Saturation of the Prunus Reference Map
ABSTRACTThe concept of selective (or bin) mapping is used here for the first time, using as an example the Prunus reference map constructed with an almond X peach F^sub 2^ population. On the basis of this map, a set of six plants that jointly defined...
Modeling Early Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Drosophila Melanogaster: The BZLF1 Protein
ABSTRACTEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several forms of cancer, including lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The EBV immediate-early protein BZLF1 functions as a transcriptional...
Molecular Population Genetics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes and Testis-Expressed Genes in Drosophila Mojavensis and D. Arizonae
ABSTRACTMolecular population genetic investigation of Drosophila male reproductive genes has focused primarily on melanogaster subgroup accessory gland protein genes (Acp's). Consistent with observations from male reproductive genes of numerous taxa,...
Multiple Bromodomain Genes Are Involved in Restricting the Spread of Heterochromatic Silencing at the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae HMR-tRNA Boundary
ABSTRACTThe transfer RNA gene downstream from the HMR locus in S. cerevisiae functions as part of a boundary (barrier) element that restricts the spread of heterochromatic gene silencing into the downstream region of chromosome III. A genetic screen...
Multiple Genes Affect Sensitivity of Caenorhabditis Elegans to the Bacterial Pathogen Microbacterium Nematophilum
ABSTRACTInteractions with bacteria play a major role in immune responses, ecology, and evolution of all animals, but they have been neglected until recently in the case of C. elegans. We report a genetic investigation of the interaction of C. elegans...
Nuclear Pore Complex Function in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Is Influenced by Glycosylation of the Transmembrane Nucleoporin Pom152p
ABSTRACTThe regulated transport of proteins across the nuclear envelope occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are composed of >30 different protein subunits termed nucleoporins. While some nucleoporins are glycosylated, little about...
Polymorphisms in Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) Are Associated with Variation in Microfibril Angle in Eucalyptus Spp
ABSTRACTLinkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping using natural populations results in higher resolution of marker-trait associations compared to family-based quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. Depending on the extent of LD, it is possible to identify...
Positive Assortative Mating with Family Size as a Function of Predicted Parental Breeding Values
ABSTRACTWhile other investigations have described benefits of positive assortative mating (PAM) for forest tree breeding, the allocation of resources among mates in these studies was either equal or varied, using schemes corresponding only to parental...
Probability of Fixation in a Heterogeneous Environment
ABSTRACTWe investigate the probability of fixation of a new mutation arising in a metapopulation that ranges over a heterogeneous selective environment. Using simulations, we test the performance of several approximations of this probability, including...
Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Longitudinal Quantitative Trait Data in Complex Pedigrees
ABSTRACTThere is currently considerable interest in genetic analysis of quantitative traits such as blood pressure and body mass index. Despite the fact that these traits change throughout life they are commonly analyzed only at a single time point....
Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Isogenic Recombinant Analysis: A Method for High-Resolution Mapping of QTL within a Single Population
ABSTRACTIn the quest for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a subcentimorgan scale, several methods that involve the construction of inbred lines and the generation of large progenies of such inbred lines have been developed (COMPLEX TRAIT...
Regulation of Histone Deposition Proteins Asf1/Hir1 by Multiple DNA Damage Checkpoint Kinases in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
ABSTRACTCAF-1, Hir proteins, and Asf1 are histone H3/H4 binding proteins important for chromatin-mediated transcriptional silencing. We explored genetic and physical interactions between these proteins and S-phase/DNA damage checkpoint kinases in the...
TFIID and Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase Functions Probed by Genome-Wide Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis Using a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Taf9-Ts Allele
ABSTRACTTAF9 is a TATA-binding protein associated factor (TAF) conserved from yeast to humans and shared by two transcription coactivator complexes, TFIID and SAGA. The essentiality of the TAFs has made it difficult to ascertain their roles in TFIID...
The Ama1-Directed Anaphase-Promoting Complex Regulates the Smk1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase during Meiosis in Yeast
ABSTRACTSmk1 is a meiosis-specific MAPK homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that regulates the postmeiotic program of spore formation. Similar to other MAPKs, it is activated via phosphorylation of the T-X-Y motif in its regulatory loop, but the signals...
The csnD/csnE Signalosome Genes Are Involved in the Aspergillus Nidulans DNA Damage Response
ABSTRACTThe signalosome (CSN) is a conserved multiprotein complex involved in regulation of eukaryotic development and is also required to activate ribonucleotide reductase for DNA synthesis. In Aspergillus nidulans, csnD/csnE are key regulators of sexual...
The Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium Caused by Selection on G6PD in Humans
ABSTRACTThe gene coding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is subject to positive selection by malaria in some human populations. The G6PD A- allele, which is common in sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with deficient enzyme activity and protection...
The Impact of Using Related Individuals for Haplotype Reconstruction in Population Studies
ABSTRACTRecent studies have highlighted the dangers of using haplotypes reconstructed directly from population data for a fine-scale mapping analysis. Family data may help resolve ambiguity, yet can be costly to obtain. This study is concerned with the...
The Rank Ordering of Genotypic Fitness Values Predicts Genetic Constraint on Natural Selection on Landscapes Lacking Sign Epistasis
ABSTRACTSewall Wright's genotypic fitness landscape makes explicit one mechanism by which epistasis for fitness can constrain evolution by natural selection. Wright distinguished between landscapes possessing multiple fitness peaks and those with only...
The RuvAB Branch Migration Translocase and RecU Holliday Junction Resolvase Are Required for Double-Stranded DNA Break Repair in Bacillus Subtilis
ABSTRACTIn models of Escherichia coli recombination and DNA repair, the RuvABC complex directs the branch migration and resolution of Holliday junction DNA. To probe the validity of the E. coli paradigm, we examined the impact of mutations in ?ruvAB...