Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 14, No. 5, October

A Direct Test of the Unequal-Variance Signal Detection Model of Recognition Memory
Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) almost invariably suggest that, on a recognition memory test, the standard deviation of memory strengths associated with the lures (s^sub lure^) is smaller than that of the targets (s^sub target^)....
A Negative Compatibility Effect in Priming of Emotional Faces
The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that low-visibility prime arrows facilitate responses to opposite-direction target arrows. Here we compare the priming obtained with simple arrows to the priming of emotions when categorizing...
A Practical Solution to the Pervasive Problems of P Values
In the field of psychology, the practice of p value null-hypothesis testing is as widespread as ever. Despite this popularity, or perhaps because of it, most psychologists are not aware of the statistical peculiarities of the p value procedure. In particular,...
A Simon Effect in Memory Retrieval: Evidence for the Response-Discrimination Account
According to the traditional view, the effects of irrelevant stimulus location on the selection of a spatial response to a nonspatial stimulus feature (Simon effect) result from long-term associations between spatial stimulus codes and spatially corresponding...
A Theory of Variability Discrimination: Finding Differences
Visual variability discrimination requires an observer to categorize collections of items on the basis of the variability in the collection; such discriminations may be vital to the adaptive actions of both humans and other animals. We present a theory...
Attentional Control and Reflexive Orienting to Gaze and Arrow Cues
A wealth of data indicate that central spatially nonpredictive eyes and arrows trigger very similar reflexive spatial orienting, although the effects of eyes may be more strongly reflexive (e.g., Friesen, Ristic, & Kingstone, 2004). Pratt and Hommel...
Cambridge University versus Hebrew University: The Impact of Letter Transposition on Reading English and Hebrew
Is reading similarly affected by letter transposition in all alphabetic orthographies? "The Cambridge University effect," demonstrating that jumbled letters have little effect on reading, was examined using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) in...
Determinants of Confirmation
Epistemologists often suppose that the extent to which evidence e confirms hypothesis H depends on probabilities involving e and H, and nothing more. We show experimentally that human reasoners sometimes violate this assumption.If verifying the truth...
Effects of Time Pressure on Context-Sensitive Property Induction
Past research suggests that category-based induction flexibly draws on different kinds of knowledge in different contexts, and that different kinds of knowledge may differ in accessibility. The present study investigates the degree to which knowledge...
Embodiment and Abstraction: Actions Create Relational Representations
Theories of embodied, modal representation propose that concepts are grounded in the sensorimotor system. According to these theories, action (or the potential for action) creates meaning. An apparent challenge for these theories is the fact that higher-order...
Eye Movements and Time-Based Selection: Where Do the Eyes Go in Preview Search?
In visual search tasks, presenting one set of distractors (previewing them) before a second set which contains the target, improves search efficiency compared to when all items appear simultaneously. It has been proposed that this preview benefit reflects...
Finding a New Target in an Old Display: Evidence for a Memory Recency Effect in Visual Search
Visual search often involves searching the same environment, consecutively, for a number of different targets. Here we investigate the extent to which search benefits from such previous exposure. In the experiment participants searched the same display...
Implicit Memory Influences the Allocation of Attention in Visual Cortex
The visual environment is highly regular, with particular objects frequently appearing in specific locations. Previous studies of visual search have shown that people take advantage of such regularities, detecting targets more quickly when they appear...
Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Visual Search: The Roles of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing
Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) have been implicated in a variety of top-down, attention-control tasks: Higher WMC subjects better ignore irrelevant distractions and withhold habitual responses than do lower WMC subjects. Kane,...
Individual Differences on Speeded Cognitive Tasks: Comment on Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007)
Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007) recently reported a test of the difference engine model (Myerson, Hale, Zheng, Jenkins, & Widaman, 2003). This test evaluated whether the standard deviation (SD) is proportional to the amount of processing-that is,...
Inhibition of Return: Unraveling a Paradox
Although inhibition of return (IOR) is widely believed to aid search by discouraging reexamination of previously inspected locations, its impact actually appears to decline as the number of target locations increases. We test three possible reasons for...
Language Context Guides Memory Content
The relationship between language and memory was examined by testing accessibility of general knowledge across two languages in bilinguals. Mandarin-English speakers were asked questions such as "name a statue of someone standing with a raised arm while...
Memory for Moving and Static Images
Despite the substantial interest in memory for complex pictorial stimuli, there has been virtually no research comparing memory for static scenes with that for their moving counterparts. We report that both monochrome and color moving images are better...
Nonword Repetition in Specific Language Impairment: More Than a Phonological Short-Term Memory Deficit
The possible role of phonological short-term memory in the nonword repetition deficit of children with specific language impairment (SLI) was investigated in a study comparing serial recall and nonword repetition of sequences of auditorily presented...
Onset of Illusory Figures Attenuates Change Blindness
We examined whether the onset of a new object defined by illusory contours is detected with greater frequency than offset when neither is associated with a unique sensory transient. Observers performed a "one-shot" change detection task in which offsetting...
Order Effects in Collaborative Memory Contamination? Comment on Gabbert, Memon, and Wright (2006)
Gabbert, Memon, and Wright (2006) claimed evidence of an order effect in collaborative memory contamination, in which the collaborator who first spoke of a particular detail was more influential. The Gabbert et al. findings are ambiguous in this regard,...
Phonological Encoding in the Attentional Blink Paradigm
The attentional blink refers to a deficit in reporting a second target that follows a first target within a few hundred milliseconds, when both targets occur in a sequence of distractors shown serially at rates of about 10 items per second. In four experiments,...
Proactive versus Reactive Task-Set Inhibition: Evidence from Flanker Compatibility Effects
Two converging tests were used to determine whether people proactively inhibit recently performed tasks when switching to new tasks. A task-cuing paradigm was used. In each trial, the relevant stimulus was accompanied by flankers belonging either to...
Rotational Inertia and Multimodal Heaviness Perception
Perceived heaviness of wielded objects has been shown to be a function of the objects' rotational inertia-the objects' resistance to rotational acceleration. Studies have also demonstrated that if virtual objects rotate faster than the actual wielded...
Sequential Processing of Cues in Memory-Based Multiattribute Decisions
When probabilistic inferences have to be made from cue values stored in long-term memory, many participants appear to use fast and frugal heuristics, such as "take the best" (TTB), that assume sequential search of cues. A simultaneous global matching...
Similarity, Distance, and Categorization: A Discussion of Smith's (2006) Warning about "Colliding Parameters"
The idea that categorization decisions rely on subjective impressions of similarities between stimuli has been prevalent in much of the literature over the past 30 years and has led to the development of a large number of models that apply some kind...
Task-Set Inhibition in Chunked Task Sequences
Exploring the hierarchical control relationship between different levels of representation and processing is important for understanding how the mind controls itself. In the present study, the relationship between chunking (a sequence-level process)...
The Mixed Truth about Frequency Effects on Free Recall: Effects of Study List Composition
The mixed-list paradox is the finding that high-frequency words show a recall advantage in blocked lists, but that this advantage is reversed or nullified in mixed lists. We argue that this paradox has been poorly defined. Specifically, researchers should...
The Revelation Effect: Moderating Influences of Encoding Conditions and Type of Recognition Test
In the revelation effect, slowly revealing a test item immediately prior to a recognition judgment increases the probability of an "old" response. Extant accounts imply that the revelation effect occurs for familiarity-based judgments but not for those...
The Size of an Attentional Window Modulates Attentional Capture by Color Singletons
Researchers have proposed that during visual search, a color singleton cannot capture attention in a bottom-up fashion (Jonides & Yantis, 1988). In the present study, we manipulated the size of the attentional window by asking participants to detect...
Who Do You Look like? Evidence of Facial Stereotypes for Male Names
The present research provides evidence that people use facial prototypes when they encounter different names. In Experiment 1, participants created face exemplars for fifteen common male names, subsets of which were endorsed as good examples by a second...
Who Is Susceptible to Conjunction Fallacies in Category-Based Induction?
Recent evidence suggests that the conjunction fallacy observed in people's probabilistic reasoning is also to be found in their evaluations of inductive argument strength. We presented 130 participants with materials likely to produce a conjunction fallacy...
Within- and Between-Nervous-System Inhibition of Return: Observation Is as Good as Performance
Inhibition of return (IOR) has been shown to occur when an individual returns to a target location (withinperson IOR) and when an individual moves to a location just engaged by another individual (between-person IOR). Although within- and between-person...
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