Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 15, No. 1, February

Aging, Spaced Retrieval, and Inflexible Memory Performance
Spaced retrieval is a memory-training technique whereby information is tested at progressively longer delays. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine the effects of spaced retrieval on controlled recollection and automatic influences of memory....
Automaticity in Motor Sequence Learning Does Not Impair Response Inhibition
We examined the relationship between automaticity and response inhibition in the serial reaction time (SRT) task to test the common assertion that automatic behavior is ballistic. Participants trained for 3 h on the SRT, using blocks of a second-order...
Causal Diversity Effects in Information Seeking
When trying to determine the root cause of an observed effect, people may seek out information with which to test a candidate hypothesis. In two studies, we investigated how knowledge of causal structure influences this information-seeking process. Specifically,...
Counteraction between Two Kinds of Conditioned Inhibition Training
In a Pavlovian fear-conditioning preparation, we investigated the effects of combining Pavlovian and explicitly unpaired inhibition treatments. A summation test for inhibition suggested a strong tendency toward unpaired inhibition when that treatment...
Covert Orienting: A Compound-Cue Account of the Proportion Cued Effect
An increase in the proportion of spatially cued trials in the context of the covert orienting paradigm increases the magnitude of the cuing effect. This proportion cued effect is widely interpreted to reflect a form of control. Specifically, it is argued...
Determining the Orientation of Depth-Rotated Familiar Objects
How does the human visual system determine the depth-orientation of familiar objects? We examined reaction times and errors in the detection of 15° differences in the depth orientations of two simultaneously presented familiar objects, which were the...
Effect of Task Length on Remembered and Predicted Duration
Vierordt's (1868) law states that when estimating the duration of a previous task, people overestimate short durations and underestimate long ones. We examine whether this same pattern holds for remembered and predicted duration for tasks lasting between...
Effects of Prime and Target Eccentricity on Masked Repetition Priming
Three experiments examined the influence of briefly presented, pattern-masked prime stimuli on target word recognition at varying eccentricities. The prime was either the same word as the targets or a different word, and prime position varied horizontally...
Evaluations of Pleasurable Experiences: The Peak-End Rule
Prior research suggests that the addition of mild pain to an aversive event may lead people to prefer and directly choose more pain over less pain (Kahneman, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993). Kahneman et al. suggest that pain ratings are...
Event-Related Potential Correlates of Interference Effects on Recognition Memory
The question of interference (how new learning affects previously acquired knowledge and vice versa) is a central theoretical issue in episodic memory research, but very few human neuroimaging studies have addressed this question. Here, we used event-related...
Evidence That Judgments of Learning Are Causally Related to Study Choice
Three experiments investigated whether study choice was directly related to judgments of learning (JOLs) by examining people's choices in cases in which JOLs were dissociated from recall. In Experiment 1, items were given either three repetitions or...
Evoking False Beliefs about Autobiographical Experience
In two experiments, we demonstrate that laboratory procedures can evoke false beliefs about autobiographical experience. After shallowly processing photographs of real-world locations, participants returned 1 week (Experiments 1 and 2) or 3 weeks (Experiment...
Inferring Interventional Predictions from Observational Learning Data
Previous research has shown that people are capable of deriving correct predictions for previously unseen actions from passive observations of causal systems (Waldmann & Hagmayer, 2005). However, these studies were limited, since learning data were...
Lexically Independent Priming in Online Sentence Comprehension
Two eye-tracking experiments investigated what happens when people read pairs of sentences that have the same syntactic structure. Previous experiments have shown priming in online sentence processing only when critical lexical material overlaps between...
Location-Specific versus Hemisphere-Specific Adaptation of Processing Selectivity
Current theories of cognitive control assume that processing selectivity is adjusted according to the utility of processing task-irrelevant stimulus features. Consistently, interference evoked by flanker stimuli is reduced when the proportion of incompatible...
Neurocognitive Deficits Related to Poor Decision Making in People Behind Bars
Using a novel quantitative model of repeated choice behavior, we investigated the cognitive processes of criminal offenders incarcerated for various crimes. Eighty-one criminals, including violent offenders, drug and sex offenders, drivers operating...
Object Detection and Basic-Level Categorization: Sometimes You Know It Is There before You Know What It Is
A tight temporal coupling between object detection (is an object there?) and object categorization (what kind of object is it?) has recently been reported (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005), suggesting that image segmentation into different objects...
On the Role of US Expectancies in Avoidance Behavior
In studies on avoidance learning, a warning signal is followed by an aversive outcome (US) unless the participant makes a particular response. Several theories have been developed to try to explain the mechanisms underlying avoidance learning. Surprisingly,...
Order of Acquisition in Learning Perceptual Categories: A Laboratory Analogue of the Age-of-Acquisition Effect?
In the age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect, an advantage for recognition and production is found for items learned early in life, as compared with items learned later. In this laboratory analogue, participants learned to categorize novel random checkerboard...
Partial Knowledge in a Tip-of-the-Tongue State about Two- and Three-Word Proper Names
Participants in this study attempted to name 44 famous people in response to reading biographical information about them. Half of the celebrities had names that contained two words (e.g., Gwyneth Paltrow and Sean Penn), and half of them had names containing...
Perceptual Expertise Enhances the Resolution but Not the Number of Representations in Working Memory
Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of...
Personal Relevance Modulates the Positivity Bias in Recall of Emotional Pictures in Older Adults
Some studies have suggested that older adults remember more positive than negative valence information, relative to younger adults, whereas other studies have reported no such difference. We tested whether differences in encoding instructions and in...
Preference Reversals with Losses
People who prefer larger, later gains over smaller, sooner gains when considering outcomes far in the future often reverse their preference as the alternatives become closer in time. This finding, which is contrary to a normative economic account of...
Selective Storage and Maintenance of an Object's Features in Visual Working Memory
It has been shown that we have a highly capacity-limited representational space with which to store objects in visual working memory. However, most objects are composed of multiple feature attributes, and it is unknown whether observers can voluntarily...
Sequences Learned without Awareness Can Orient Attention during the Perception of Human Activity
Human activity contains sequential dependencies that observers may use to structure a task environment (e.g., the ordering of steps when tying shoes or getting into a car). Two experiments investigated how people take advantage of sequential structure...
Short-Term Memory Loss over Time without Retroactive Stimulus Interference
A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across...
Slowing Presentation Speed Increases Illusions of Knowledge
Prior research on false memories has shown that suggestibility is often reduced when the presentation rate is slowed enough to allow monitoring. We examined whether slowing presentation speed would reduce factual errors learned from fictional stories....
Social Processing Improves Recall Performance
One recent theory (Dunbar, 2003) has highlighted the importance that processing social information might have had on the evolution of human cognition. Based on an analysis of that theory, researchers predicted that processing information in a social...
Spatial Coding of Word-Initial Letters: Evidence from a Simon-Like Task
In this study, we investigated whether the processing of written words leads to a preferential coding of word beginnings and whether this coding occurs in the context of word representations that are spatial in nature and depend on the orientation of...
Task Selection Cost Asymmetry without Task Switching
The switch cost asymmetry (i.e., larger costs when switching from a nondominant into a dominant task than vice versa) has been explained in terms of the trial-to-trial carryover of activation levels required for the dominant versus the nondominant task....
Temporal Associative Processes Revealed by Intrusions in Paired-Associate Recall
Although much is known about the factors that influence the acquisition and retention of individual paired associates, the existence of temporally defined associations spanning multiple pairs has not been demonstrated. We report two experiments in which...
The Persistence of Memory: Contiguity Effects across Hundreds of Seconds
A contiguity effect-the finding that stimuli that occur close together in time become associated to each other-is observed between words that are separated by several seconds. The traditional account of contiguity effects is that item representations...
There Are Many Ways to Be Rich: Effects of Three Measures of Semantic Richness on Visual Word Recognition
Previous studies have reported that semantic richness facilitates visual word recognition (see, e.g., Buchanan, Westbury, & Burgess, 2001; Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003). We compared three semantic richness measures-number of semantic neighbors...
Three Case Studies in the Bayesian Analysis of Cognitive Models
Bayesian statistical inference offers a principled and comprehensive approach for relating psychological models to data. This article presents Bayesian analyses of three influential psychological models: multidimensional scaling models of stimulus representation,...
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