Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 2, April

Associated or Dissociated Effects of Syllable Frequency in Lexical Decision and Naming
Most empirical work investigating the role of syllable frequency in visual word recognition has focused on the Spanish language, in which syllable frequency seems to produce a classic dissociation: inhibition in lexical decision tasks but facilitation...
Cross-Species Differences in Color Categorization
Berlin and Kay (1969) found systematic restrictions in the color terms of the world's languages and were inclined to look to the primate visual system for their origin. Because the visual system does not provide adequate neurophysiological discontinuities...
Do the Upright Eyes Have It?
Eye contact is crucial for social communication. A perceived direct gaze facilitates detection, whereas face inversion diminishes this facilitative effect (Senju, Hasegawa, & Tojo, 2005). In the present study, we adopted a visual search paradigm...
Effects of Top-Down Guidance and Singleton Priming on Visual Search
Recent literature suggests that observers can use advance knowledge of the target feature to guide their search but fail to do so whenever the target is reliably a singleton. Instead, they engage in singleton-detection mode-that is, they search for the...
Filling a Gap in the Semantic Gradient: Color Associates and Response Set Effects in the Stroop Task
In the Stroop task, incongruent color associates (e.g., LAKE) interfere more with color identification than neutral words do (e.g., SEAT). However, color associates have historically been related to colors in the response set. Response set membership...
Generalization in Perceptual Learning for Speech
Lexical context strongly influences listeners' identification of ambiguous sounds. For example, a sound midway between /f/ and /s/ is reported as /f/ in "sheri_," but as /s/ in "Pari_." Norris, McQueen, and Cutler (2003) have demonstrated that after...
Hedonic Contrast and Condensation: Good Stimuli Make Mediocre Stimuli Less Good and Less Different
Loud sounds make soft sounds softer (contrast) and also make them less discriminable (which we call condensation). We report on parallel phenomena in hedonics: Good stimuli reduce the pleasantness of less good stimuli, and also reduce people's preferences...
Infants' Sensitivity to Uniform Connectedness as a Cue for Perceptual Organization
A new grouping principle, uniform connectedness (UC), has been posited to be a basic organizer of visual pattern information, one that takes precedence over other, more classic grouping principles (Palmer & Rock, 1994), but its ontogenetic origins...
Memory for Facial Expressions: The Power of a Smile
Faces with expressions (happy, surprise, anger, fear) were presented at study. Memory for facial expressions was tested by presenting the same faces with neutral expressions and asking participants to determine the expression that had been displayed...
Orthographic Complexity and Word Naming in Italian: Some Words Are More Transparent Than Others
Italian is a language with a transparent orthography in which printed words can be translated into the correct sequence of phonemes using a limited set of rules. The rules of letter-sound conversion are, however, simpler for some letters than for others:...
Posing for Success: Clenching a Fist Facilitates Approach
A clenched fist is a gesture often seen both within and outside sports that seems to communicate success or to function in self-encouragement or the encouragement of others. This "encouragement gesture" involves the contraction of forearm flexors, similar...
Preparatory Adjustment of Cognitive Control in the Task Switching Paradigm
In this article, the authors investigate the assumption that preparation while switching between cognitive tasks is dynamically adjusted to the current task demands. Performance in high-shift blocks (75% shifts) was compared with performance in high-repetition...
Proverb Preferences across Cultures: Dialecticality or Poeticality?
Peng and Nisbett (1999) claimed that members of Asian cultures show a greater preference than Euro-Americans for proverbs expressing paradox (so-called dialectical proverbs; e.g., Too humble is half proud). The present research sought to replicate this...
Relevant Distractors Do Not Cause Negative Priming
Highly relevant stimuli (such as one's own name) can capture attention in situations in which one can only partially attend to the environment (e.g., the classic "cocktail party" phenomenon, introduced by Moray, 1959). The present study extends previous...
See What You've Done! Active Touch Affects the Number of Perceived Visual Objects
Previous research has shown that visual perception is affected by sensory information from other modalities. For example, sound can alter the visual intensity or the number of visual objects perceived. However, when touch and vision are combined, vision...
Smell Your Way Back to Childhood: Autobiographical Odor Memory
This study addressed age distributions and experiential qualities of autobiographical memories evoked by different sensory cues. Ninety-three older adults were presented with one of three cue types (word, picture, or odor) and were asked to relate any...
Sorting out Categories: Incremental Learning of Category Structure
Two experiments examine how inferences might promote unsupervised and incremental category learning. Many categories have members related through overall similarity (e.g., a family resemblance structure) rather than by a defining feature. However, when...
Spatial Coding in Two Dimensions
There has been growing interest in exploring human performance for situations in which stimuli and/or responses vary along both horizontal and vertical dimensions. Earlier studies indicated that there is a prevalence of the horizontal dimension over...
Spatial Updating Relies on an Egocentric Representation of Space: Effects of the Number of Objects
Models of spatial updating attempt to explain how representations of spatial relationships between the actor and objects in the environment change as the actor moves. In allocentric models, object locations are encoded in an external reference frame,...
Stimulus- and Response-Conflict-Induced Cognitive Control in the Flanker Task
Recently, several studies have been conducted to investigate the top-down adjustments made after incongruent trials during conflict tasks. In the present study, we investigated conflict monitoring with different types of conflict. In a modified version...
The Context-Specific Proportion Congruent Stroop Effect: Location as a Contextual Cue
The Stroop effect has been shown to depend on the relative proportion of congruent and incongruent trials. This effect is commonly attributed to experiment-wide word-reading strategies that change as a function of proportion congruent. Recently, Jacoby,...
The Effects of Memory Load on the Time Course of Inhibition of Return
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a processing disadvantage at a recently attended location. It is generally agreed that when elicited in a cue-target task, IOR will not be apparent until attention is disengaged from the originally cued location and...
The Failure to Detect Tactile Change: A Tactile Analogue of Visual Change Blindness
A large body of empirical research now shows that people are surprisingly poor at detecting significant changes in visually presented scenes. This phenomenon is known as change blindness in vision. A similar phenomenon occurs in audition, but to date...
Verbal Overshadowing of Perceptual Discrimination
We examined effects of verbal interference on a perceptual discrimination task. Participants were presented with a series of faces, described (or did not describe) an additional face, and then made face/ nonface decisions to both the original faces and...
Weaving the Fabric of Social Interaction: Articulating Developmental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience in the Domain of Motor Cognition
In this article, we bring together recent findings from developmental science and cognitive neuroscience to argue that perception-action coupling constitutes the fundamental mechanism of motor cognition. A variety of empirical evidence suggests that...
Within-Category Feature Correlations and Bayesian Adjustment Strategies
To the extent that categories inform judgments about items, the accuracy with which categories capture the statistical structure of experience should affect judgment accuracy. The authors argue that representations of feature correlations can serve as...
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