Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 5, October

Abrupt Onsets Cannot Be Ignored
Participants identified target letters at cued locations in the presence of occasional abrupt onsets of new distractor letters. The onsets distracted the participants and impaired their letter identification performance despite confirmation that they...
Age and Sex Differences in Children's Spatial Search Strategies
Male and female children, 3, 4, and 5 years old, searched for a sticker that was hidden in 1 of 15 linearly aligned boxes. Two identical bear-shaped landmarks cued the sticker location, which was always in the middle of 3 boxes that separated the two...
Are Item-Level Strategy Shifts Abrupt and Collective? Age Differences in Cognitive Skill Acquisition
Item-level analysis allows for the examination of qualitative age and individual differences in skill acquisition, which are obscured when aggregating data across items. In the present study, item-level strategy shifts were generally gradual and variable,...
A Unified Fielder Theory for Interception of Moving Objects Either above or below the Horizon
A unified fielder theory is presented that explains how humans navigate to intercept targets that approach from either above or below the horizon. Despite vastly different physical forces affecting airborne and ground-based moving targets, a common set...
Cross-Alphabet and Cross-Modal Long-Term Priming in Serbian and English
In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated long-term repetition priming effects in Serbian under crossalphabet and cross-modal conditions. In both experiments, results followed the same pattern: significant priming in all conditions and no significant reduction...
Discrepancy Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval
Discrepancy processes may be helpful in noticing prospective memory targets (McDaniel, Guynn, Einstein, & Breneiser, 2004). We manipulated the discrepancy of prospective memory targets from the processing coherence established by the ongoing task...
Dissociating Viewpoint Costs in Mental Rotation and Object Recognition
In a mental rotation task, participants must determine whether two stimuli match when one undergoes a rotation in 3-D space relative to the other. The key evidence for mental rotation is the finding of a linear increase in response times as objects are...
Do You Remember Proposing Marriage to the Pepsi Machine? False Recollections from a Campus Walk
During a campus walk, participants were given familiar or bizarre action statements (e.g., "Check the Pepsi machine for change" vs. "Propose marriage to the Pepsi machine") with instructions either to perform the actions or imagine performing the actions...
Evidence for Separate Representations for Action and Location in Implicit Motor Sequencing
We examined sequential learning of actions in an experiment in which four different actions (push, twist, pinch, switch) were placed at four horizontal locations. At transfer, participants responded to a sequence that required performing the same sequence...
Evidence for Task-Specific Resolution of Response Conflict
When a target requires different responses to a relevant and to an irrelevant task in a task-switching paradigm, there is response conflict. This target-induced response conflict was combined with conflict caused by a subliminally presented prime presented...
Eye Movements, Not Hypercompatible Mappings, Are Critical for Eliminating the Cost of Task Set Reconfiguration
Residual switch costs are notoriously difficult to eliminate. Yet Hunt and Klein (2002) eliminated them in a task that required observers to alternate between 8 trials of prosaccades and 8 trials of antisaccades, as long as there was at least 1 sec between...
Fruitful Visual Search: Inhibition of Return in a Virtual Foraging Task
Inhibition of return (IOR) has long been viewed as a foraging facilitator in visual search. We investigated the contribution of IOR in a task that approximates natural foraging more closely than typical visual search tasks. Participants in a fully immersive...
Grasping Movement Plans
Despite the great amount of research that has been done regarding the time it takes to move the hand to targets of varying distances and widths, it is unclear whether target distance and width are both represented in movement plans prior to movement...
Imagination and Memory: Does Imagining Implausible Events Lead to False Autobiographical Memories?
Previous studies have reported that imagination can induce false autobiographical memories. This finding has been used to suggest that psychotherapists who have clients imagine suspected repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse may, in fact, be inducing...
I Misremember It Well: Why Older Adults Are Unreliable Eyewitnesses
We used the eyewitness suggestibility paradigm to investigate the hypothesis that cognitive aging is associated with an increase in misrecollections-confidently held but false memories of past events. When younger and older adults were matched on their...
Inhibition of Return Lasts Longer at Repeatedly Stimulated Locations Than at Novel Locations
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the fact that it takes longer for people to attend to recently examined locations than to novel locations. It has been argued that a single mechanism governs both IOR and negative priming (NP). If this is true, IOR...
Number Magnitude Orients Attention, but Not against One's Will
Recent evidence has shown that uninformative numbers can trigger attention shifts congruent with the spatial representation of number magnitude (Fischer, Castel, Dodd, & Pratt, 2003). In the present study, three spatial-cuing experiments whose aim...
Outsourcing Cognitive Control to the Environment: Adult Age Differences in the Use of Task Cues
When an initial phase of cued task switching is followed by a phase of single-task trials, older adults show difficulties changing to the more efficient single-task mode of processing (Mayr & Liebscher, 2001). In Experiment 1, we show that these...
People over Forty Feel 20% Younger Than Their Age: Subjective Age across the Lifespan
Subjective age-the age people think of themselves as being-is measured in a representative Danish sample of 1,470 adults between 20 and 97 years of age through personal, in-home interviews. On the average, adults younger than 25 have older subjective...
Redundant Visual Signals Boost Saccade Execution
The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the fact that human beings react more quickly to a pair of stimuli than to only one stimulus. In previous studies of the RSE in the oculomotor system, bimodal signals have been used as the goal of the saccade....
Stereotype Susceptibility Narrows the Gender Gap in Imagined Self-Rotation Performance
Three studies examined the impact of stereotype messages on men's and women's performance of a mental rotation task involving imagined self-rotations. Experiment 1 established baseline differences between men and women; women made 12% more errors than...
Temporal Attentional Capture: Effects of Irrelevant Singletons on Rapid Serial Visual Search
The presence of a unique yet irrelevant singleton in visual search or spatial-cuing tasks is typically associated with performance costs, suggesting that singletons tend to capture attention. However, since singletons have always been spatially separated...
The Attentional Blink Is Governed by a Temporary Loss of Control
Identification of the second of two brief targets is impaired at intertarget lags of less than about 500 msec. We compared two accounts of this attentional blink (AB) by manipulating the number of digit distractors-and hence the lag-inserted among three...
The Effects of List-Method Directed Forgetting on Recognition Memory
It is an almost universally accepted claim that the list-method procedure of inducing directed forgetting does not affect recognition. However, previous studies have omitted a critical comparison in reaching this conclusion. This article reports evidence...
The Number Line Effect Reflects Top-Down Control
Recent evidence indicates that central directional stimuli, such as eyes and arrows, trigger rapid, reflexive shifts of spatial attention. A study by Fischer, Castel, Dodd, and Pratt (2003) suggested that a similar effect might also apply to central...
Time Course of Retrieving Conceptual Information: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off Study
Words carry considerable information, but much of that information is not relevant in context. Research has shown that readers selectively activate and remember relevant information associated with words in different contexts, but it is not known when...
Tracking the What and Why of Speakers' Choices: Prosodic Boundaries and the Length of Constituents
The rational speaker hypothesis (Clifton, Carlson, & Frazier, 2002) claims that speakers are self-consistent, employing intonation in a manner consistent with their intended message. Preceding a constituent by a prosodic boundary that is not required...
What Matters in the Cued Task-Switching Paradigm: Tasks or Cues?
Schneider and Logan (2006) recently showed that cue-switch and task-switch costs are sensitive to the relative probability of cue switches versus task switches. From this they concluded that taskswitch costs reflect priming of cue-cue transitions rather...
What Types of Learning Are Enhanced by a Cued Recall Test?
In two experiments, we investigated what types of learning benefit from a cued recall test After initial exposure to a word pair (A+B), subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test (A[arrow right]?) with feedback, or a restudy presentation...
When Parameters Collide: A Warning about Categorization Models
Similarity-choice (S-C) models of categorization contain two principal mathematical transformations: an exponential-decay similarity function and a choice rule. However, there is a tension between the psychological processes that models emulate and the...
When the Red Sox Shocked the Yankees: Comparing Negative and Positive Memories
The present study examined whether positive or negative valence affects the amount of detail remembered about a public event, and whether positive or negative valence alters other memory characteristics (consistency, vividness, and confidence). Memory...

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