Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Provides broad range of topics in all areas of experimental psychology. The journal publishes theory and review articles, reports on experimental work, and coverage of methods in all areas.

Articles from Vol. 14, No. 6, December

Adaptive Changes between Cue Abstraction and Exemplar Memory in a Multiple-Cue Judgment Task with Continuous Cues
The majority of previous studies on multiple-cue judgment with continuous cues have involved comparisons between judgments and multiple linear regression models that integrated cues into a judgment. The authors present an experiment indicating that in...
Aging and Situation Model Processing
Over the past several years, a number of studies have been done that assess processing at the level of the situation model in relation to issues of aging (Morrow, Leirer, & Altieri, 1992; Radvansky, Copeland, Berish, & Dijkstra, 2003; Radvansky,...
A Response Rule for Positive and Negative Stimulus Interaction in Associative Learning and Performance
The present article presents a response rule developed to account for both positive and negative stimulus interaction. In the response rule proposed here, positive interaction phenomena (e.g., second-order conditioning) and negative interaction phenomena...
A Test of Two Different Revelation Effects Using Forced-Choice Recognition
The revelation effect refers to the finding of an increased propensity to classify recognition test probes as old when they are preceded by a problem solving task. Recent research indicates that revelation effects are dissociable based on whether the...
Attentional Selection of Complex Objects: Joint Effects of Surface Uniformity and Part Structure
What object properties warrant selection by object-based attention? Previous research has suggested that surface uniformity is required for object-based attentional selection (Watson & Kramer, 1999), yet nonuniform objects are encountered frequently....
Auditory Presentation Leads to Better Analogical Retrieval Than Written Presentation
Research on analogical retrieval suggests that cues with object similarity to a prior episode in memory lead to better retrieval than do cues with relational similarity. We suggest that previous work may have underestimated the effectiveness of relational...
Concavities Count for Less in Symmetry Perception
We investigated the relative importance of convexities (protrusions) and concavities (indentations) for the perception of shape. On the one hand, it has been suggested that convexities determine the shape of an object, whereas concavities merely act...
Danger and Usefulness: An Alternative Framework for Understanding Rapid Evaluation Effects in Perception?
Previous studies have shown effects of rated danger and usefulness on lexical access. All of them have used stimuli selected for connotations of danger and/or usefulness. Stimuli for the present lexical decision study were all of the nouns, verbs, and...
Distractor Effects during Processing of Words under Load
The perceptual load model of attention (Lavie, 1995) suggests that processing of irrelevant distractors depends on the extent to which a relevant task engages full perceptual capacity. Word recognition models suggest that letter perception is facilitated...
Distributing versus Focusing Attention in Visual Short-Term Memory
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual memory resistant to interference from subsequent visual input. This study shows that the robustness of VSTM depends on the way attention is allocated in VSTM. When attention...
Does Response Scaling Cause the Generalized Context Model to Mimic a Prototype Model?
Smith and Minda (1998, 2002) argued that the response scaling parameter ? in the exemplar-based generalized context model (GCM) makes the model unnecessarily complex and allows it to mimic the behavior of a prototype model. We evaluated this criticism...
Fitting the Ratcliff Diffusion Model to Experimental Data
Many experiments in psychology yield both reaction time and accuracy data. However, no off-the-shelf methods yet exist for the statistical analysis of such data. One particularly successful model has been the diffusion process, but using it is difficult...
I'd Know That Face Anywhere!
Mandler (1980) provided the classic "butcher on the bus" example illustrating the feeling of familiarity without recollection that may arise when an acquaintance is encountered in an unusual context. We studied this phenomenon by pairing photos of faces...
Intuitive T Tests: Lay Use of Statistical Information
Normatively, a statistical pairwise comparison is a function of the mean, standard deviation (SD), and sample size of the data. In our experiment, 203 undergraduates compared product pairs and judged their confidence that one product was better than...
Learning and Transfer of Relational Matching-to-Sample by Pigeons
We trained pigeons on a relational matching-to-sample task to see whether a nonprimate species can discriminate higher-order "relations between relations." We required the birds to relationally match arrays of 16 items that were chosen from five nonoverlapping...
Memory for Goal-Directed Sequences of Actions: Is Doing Better Than Seeing?
Verb-object phrases are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study than if they have been learned verbally or if one has observed another person enact the phrases. Researchers have explained this well-established enactment effect...
Motor and Visual Codes Interact to Facilitate Visuospatial Memory Performance
The spatial working memory system constantly updates spatial representations and many studies have focused on the underlying principles of the encoding and maintenance of visual information. Here we investigated the question of how the production of...
New Visuospatial Associations by Training Verbospatial Mappings in the First Language
We investigated whether verbospatial and visuospatial information share a common representation. We demonstrate that when the associations from spatial words to spatial responses are altered, so that the word LEFT becomes associated with a right response...
Regulatory Fit Effects in a Choice Task
This article examines the interface between motivation and choice. In category learning, a regulatory fit has been shown to increase exploration of alternative response strategies even when exploration is suboptimal. In the present study, promotion-...
Space and Time, Not Surface Features, Guide Object Persistence
Successful visual perception relies on the ability to keep track of distinct entities as the same persisting objects from one moment to the next This is a computationally difficult process and its underlying nature remains unclear. Here we use the object...
Support for Hybrid Models of the Age of Acquisition of English Nouns
Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic construct that refers to the chronological age at which a given word is acquired. Contemporary theories of AoA have focused on lexical acquisition with respect to either the developing phonological or semantic...
The Acronym Superiority Effect
The visual world is replete with noisy, continuous, perceptually variant linguistic information, which fluent readers rapidly translate from percept to meaning. What are the properties the language comprehension system uses as cues to initiate lexical/semantic...
The Effects of a Task-Irrelevant Visual Event on Spatial Working Memory
In the present experiment, we investigated whether the memory of a location is affected by the occurrence of an irrelevant visual event. Participants had to memorize the location of a dot. During the retention interval, a task-irrelevant stimulus was...
The Locus of the Frequency Effect in Picture Naming: When Recognizing Is Not Enough
The lexical frequency effect in picture naming is generally assumed to constitute a signature of lexical access. Lexical frequency, however, is correlated with other variables, like concept familiarity, that can produce effects similar to those of lexical...
The Role of Experience in Decisions from Description
We extend research on the distinction between decisions from experience or description to situations in which people are given perfect information about outcome probabilities and have experience in an environment which matches the described information....
The Role of the Frequency of Constituents in Compound Words: Evidence from Basque and Spanish
Recent data from compound word processing suggests that compounds are recognized via their constituent lexemes (Juhasz, Starr, Inhoff, & Placke, 2003). The present lexical decision experiment manipulated orthogonally the frequency of the constituents...
Timecourse of Recovery from Task Interruption: Data and a Model
Interruption of a complex cognitive task can entail, for the "interruptee," a sense of having to recover afterward. We examined this recovery process by measuring the timecourse of responses following an interruption, sampling over 13,000 interruptions...
Why Do Children Perseverate When They Seem to Know Better: Graded Working Memory, or Directed Inhibition?
Children sometimes have trouble switching from one task to another, despite demonstrating an awareness of current task demands. This behavior could reflect problems either directly inhibiting previously relevant information or sufficiently activating...
Working Memory and the Attentional Blink: Blink Size Is Predicted by Individual Differences in Operation Span
The attentional blink (AB) is often attributed to resource limitations, but the nature of these resources is commonly underspecified. Recent observations rule out access to short-term memory or storage capacity as limiting factors, but operation bottlenecks...
"You and Your Best Friend Suzy Put Slime in Ms. Smollett's Desk": Producing False Memories with Self-Relevant Details
Rates of false memory reports vary markedly in the published literature. In an effort to explain these differences, the present study investigated the effects of including different types of details in a false narrative upon subsequent false memory formation....
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