Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 35, No. 4, June

Age-Related Differences in Immediate Serial Recall: Dissociating Chunk Formation and Capacity
We assessed the contribution of two hypothesized mechanisms to impaired memory performance of older adults in an immediate serial recall task: decreased temporary information storage in a capacity-limited mechanism, such as the focus of attention, and...
Cognitive Adaptations Arising from Nonnative Experience of Sign Language in Hearing Adults
Three experiments examined spatial transformation abilities in hearing people who acquired sign language in early adulthood. The performance of the nonnative hearing signers was compared with that of hearing people with no knowledge of sign language....
Cognitive Implications of Facilitating Echoic Persistence
Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays...
Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration
The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In...
Cultural Scripts Guide Recall of Intensely Positive Life Events
In four studies, we examined the temporal distribution of positive and negative memories of momentous life events. College students and middle-aged adults reported events occurring from the ages of 8 to 18 years in which they had felt especially good...
Diminutives Facilitate Word Segmentation in Natural Speech: Cross-Linguistic Evidence
Final-syllable invariance is characteristic of diminutives (e.g., doggie), which are a pervasive feature of the child-directed speech registers of many languages. Invariance in word endings has been shown to facilitate word segmentation (Kempe, Brooks,...
Direct Evidence for a Role of Working Memory in the Attentional Blink
Theories of selective attention often have a central memory component, which is commonly thought to be limited in some way and is thereby a potential bottleneck in the attentional process. There have been only a few attempts to validate this assertion,...
Equivalent Inter- and Intramodality Long-Term Priming: Evidence for a Common Lexicon for Words Seen and Words Heard
Weaker inter- than intramodality long-term priming of words has promoted two hypotheses: (1) separate visual and auditory lexicons and (2) modality dependence of implicit memory. In five experiments, we employed manipulations aimed to minimize study-test...
Incubation Benefits Only after People Have Been Misdirected
Incubation refers to the popular idea that stopping work on a problem may, at times, be a more efficient means by which to reach a solution than continuing to work. Empirical studies of incubation have used few participants and have provided ambiguous...
Memory Decreases for Prose, but Not for Poetry
Memory for details of text generally declines relatively rapidly, whereas memory for propositional and context-based meanings is generally more resilient over time. In the present study, we investigated short-term memory for two kinds of verbal material:...
Memory for General and Specific Value Information in Younger and Older Adults: Measuring the Limits of Strategic Control
The ability to selectively remember important information is a critical function of memory. Although previous research has suggested that older adults are impaired in a variety of episodic memory tasks, recent work has demonstrated that older adults...
Sources of Error in Picture Naming under Time Pressure
We used a deadline procedure to investigate how time pressure may influence the processes involved in picture naming. The deadline exaggerated errors found under naming without deadline. There were also category differences in performance between living...
Strength-Based Mirror Effects in Item and Associative Recognition: Evidence for Within-List Criterion Changes
Strength-based mirror effects occur when the hit rate is higher and the false alarm rate is lower following strongly encoded study lists than when following more weakly encoded study lists. In Experiments 1A and 1B, strength-based mirror effects were...
Suppression Effects on Musical and Verbal Memory
Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while...
The Effect of Divided Attention on False Memory Depends on How Memory Is Tested
In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention...
The Influence of Overlapping Response Sets on Task Inhibition
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of overlapping response sets to the occurrence of task inhibition, measured as n-2 task repetition cost. We had subjects switch among four tasks. Three tasks overlapped on both stimulus set...
The Negative Cascade of Incongruent Generative Study-Test Processing in Memory and Metacomprehension
Previous research suggests that when participants engage in generative study activities, the processing of text is enhanced and improvements in memory and metacomprehension result. However, few studies have investigated the influence of processes required...
The Roles of Encoding, Retrieval, and Awareness in Change Detection
In the experiment reported here, we examined the processes by which expected (probable) changes are detected more frequently than are unexpected (improbable) changes (the change probability effect; Beck, Angelone, & Levin, 2004). The change probability...
Visual Similarity Effects on Short-Term Memory for Order: The Case of Verbally Labeled Pictorial Stimuli
Four experiments examined the effect of visual similarity on immediate memory for order. Experiments 1 and 2 used easily nameable line drawings. Following a sequential presentation in either silent or suppression conditions, participants were presented...
Visual Working Memory for Global, Object, and Part-Based Information
We investigated visual working memory for novel objects and parts of novel objects. After a delay period, participants showed strikingly more accurate performance recognizing a single whole object than the parts of that object. This bias to remember...
What It Costs to Implement a Plan: Plan-Level and Task-Level Contributions to Switch Costs
Four experiments were conducted to identify the costs of implementing a plan in the task span procedure, which requires subjects to retrieve the task to perform on the current target from a list of planned tasks in memory. Experiment 1 compared switch...
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