Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 35, No. 7, October

A Role for Action Knowledge in Visual Object Identification
We evaluated the impact of visual similarity and action similarity on visual object identification. We taught participants to associate novel objects with nonword labels and verified that in memory visually similar objects were confused more often than...
Associative Processes in Immediate Recency
Some theorists have argued that the immediate recency effect observed in free recall reflects the emptying out of the contents of a short-term memory buffer (Davelaar, Goshen-Gottstein, Ashkenazi, Haarmann, & Usher, 2005). Others have argued that...
Categorical Perception of Facial Expressions: Evidence for a "Category Adjustment" Model
Four experiments probed the nature of categorical perception (CP) for facial expressions. A model based on naming alone failed to accurately predict performance on these tasks. The data are instead consistent with an extension of the category adjustment...
Comparing Decay Rates for Accurate and False Memories in the DRM Paradigm
Although previous studies have consistently reported different forgetting rates for true and false memory when tested with recall, studies comparing the rates of decay for true and false recognition have reported inconsistent results. The present study...
Cross-Language Message- and Word-Level Transfer Effects in Bilingual Text Processing
The present study examined the nature of the mental representations bilinguals form when reading a text and to what extent they are language specific. English-French bilinguals read five pairs of passages in succession while their eye movements were...
Do Multiplication and Division Strategies Rely on Executive and Phonological Working Memory Resources?
The role of executive and phonological working memory resources in simple arithmetic was investigated in two experiments. Participants had to solve simple multiplication problems (e.g., 4 × 8; Experiment 1) or simple division problems (e.g., 42 ÷ 7;...
Effects of Verb Complexity on Speech Errors
Two experiments examined whether semantically related verbs that contrast with respect to the absence versus the presence of an additional semantic feature differentially compete for selection during the encoding of a sentence for production. In both...
Environmental Context Effects of Background Color in Free Recall
In four experiments, we investigated background-color context effects in free recall. A total of 194 undergraduates studied words presented one by one against a background color, and oral free recall was tested after a 30-sec filled retention interval....
Evidence for Parallel Semantic Memory Retrieval in Dual Tasks
In this dual-task study, we applied both cross-talk logic and locus-of-slack logic to test whether participants can retrieve semantic categories in Task 2 in parallel to Task 1 bottleneck processing. Whereas cross-talk logic can detect parallel memory...
Falsely Recalled Items Are Rich in Item-Specific Information
Current theorizing suggests that critical lures in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure are often falsely remembered because they have received considerable relational processing (e.g., spreading activation or encoding of gist information). We...
Feedback Interference and Dissociations of Classification: Evidence against the Multiple-Learning-Systems Hypothesis
Researchers have argued that different categorization problems are learned by separate and distinct cognitive systems. They propose that an explicit system is responsible for learning rule-based categories and that a separate implicit system learns information-integration...
How Many Processes Underlie Category-Based Induction? Effects of Conclusion Specificity and Cognitive Ability
Two studies investigated participants' sensitivity to the amount and diversity of the evidence when reasoning inductively about categories. Both showed that participants are more sensitive to characteristics of the evidence for arguments with general...
Memory for Scenes: Refixations Reflect Retrieval
Most conceptions of episodic memory hold that reinstatement of encoding operations is essential for retrieval success, but the specific mechanisms of retrieval reinstatement are not well understood. In three experiments, we used saccadic eye movements...
Memory for Spatial Location: Cue Effects as a Function of Field Rotation
We developed theoretical extensions of Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan's (1991) category-adjustment model of human spatial memory to incorporate the use of fuzzy boundaries and cue-determined prototypes. In two experiments, people reproduced locations...
Metamorphosis: Essence, Appearance, and Behavior in the Categorization of Natural Kinds
The transformation paradigm (Rips, 1989) was used to contrast causal homeostasis and strict essentialist beliefs about biological kinds. Participants read scenarios describing animals that changed their appearance and behavior through either accidental...
Olfaction and Emotion: The Case of Autobiographical Memory
This study investigated (1) the influence of verbal and conceptual processing on the retrieval and phenomenological evaluation of olfactory evoked memories, and (2) whether the experienced qualities of retrieved information are affected by olfactory...
Realizing Complex Delayed Intentions in Young and Old Adults: The Role of Planning Aids
Although it has been suggested that the delayed realization of intended actions should benefit from appropriate intention planning, empirical evidence on this issue is scarce. In three experiments, we examined whether and which planning aids provided...
Recognition without Face Identification
Recognition without identification is the finding that participants can recognize recognition test items as having been previously studied when the test items themselves are presented in such a way that their identification is hindered. The present study...
Repeating Phrases across Unrelated Narratives: Evidence of Text Repetition Effects
Research has shown that text repetition effects are limited to conditions in which the context remains consistent across the two processing episodes, particularly when readers are focused on comprehension. Despite this, we found evidence of transfer...
Short-Term Recognition Memory for Serial Order and Timing
Recent evidence suggests that a common temporal representation underlies memory for serial order of items in a sequence, and the timing of items in a sequence. This stands in contrast to other data suggesting a reliance on only ordinal information in...
Text Repetition and Text Integration
Two experiments explored the levels of text representation that mediate text repetition effects, following the Raney (2003) model. The magnitude of the repetition benefit in Experiment 1 supported predictions of Raney's model, indicating that the ease...
The Effects of Prior Knowledge and Text Structure on Comprehension Processes during Reading of Scientific Texts
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prior knowledge and text structure on cognitive processes during comprehension of scientific texts. To investigate the processes online, we used a think-aloud methodology in Experiment 1...
The Effects of Processing Time and Processing Rate on Forgetting in Working Memory: Testing Four Models of the Complex Span Paradigm
Four models of working memory processes in the complex span paradigm were tested: The task-switching model of Towse, Hitch, and Hutton (1998), the interference account of Saito and Miyake (2004), and two versions of the time-based resource-sharing model...
The Influence of Information Redundancy on Probabilistic Inferences
Information redundancy affects the accuracy of inference strategies. A simulation study illustrates that under high-information redundancy simple heuristics that rely on only the most important information are as accurate as strategies that integrate...
The Influence of Multiple Readings on the Missing-Letter Effect Revisited
In searching for a target letter while reading, participants make more omissions when the target letter is embedded in frequent function words than when it is embedded in less frequent content words. According to the guidance-organization (GO) model,...
Thinking about Conditionals: A Study of Individual Differences
Recent studies have shown the existence of two qualitatively distinct groups of people based on how they judge the probability of a conditional statement. The present study was designed to test whether these differences are rooted in distinctive means...
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