Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 33, No. 2, March

A Strict Test of the Phonological Loop Hypothesis with Libyan Data
In Arabic, there are two ways, differing in length, of pronouncing each digit. This feature of word pairs that are conceptually identical but of different length allows for a stricter test of the phonological loop hypothesis than has been reported previously....
Causal Impressions: Predicting When, Not Just Whether
In 1739, David Hume established the so-called cues to causality-environmental cues that are important to the inference of causality. Although this descriptive account has been corroborated experimentally, it has not been established why these cues are...
Comparison-Induced Decoy Effects
Extant theories of decoy effects on evaluations of attribute values were assessed with respect to their ability to account for a one-dimensional analogue of the asymmetric dominance effect. Parducci's (1965, 1995) range-frequency theory, Krumhansl's...
Disentangling Encoding versus Retrieval Explanations of the Bizarreness Effect: Implications for Distinctiveness
Recall effects attributed to distinctiveness have been explained by both encoding and retrieval accounts. Resolution of this theoretical controversy has been clouded because the typical methodology confounds the encoding and retrieval contexts. Using...
Effects of Category Diversity on Learning, Memory, and Generalization
In this study, we examined the effect of within-category diversity on people's ability to learn perceptual categories, their inclination to generalize categories to novel items, and their ability to distinguish new items from old. After learning to distinguish...
Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Interference on Spatial and Object Visual Working Memory
We tested the hypothesis that a verbal coding mechanism is necessarily engaged by object, but not spatial, visual working memory tasks. We employed a dual-task procedure that paired n-back working memory tasks with domain-specific distractor trials inserted...
False Recognition across Meaning, Language, and Stimulus Format: Conceptual Relatedness and the Feeling of Familiarity
Four experiments examined contributions of conceptual relatedness and feelings of familiarity to false recognition. Participants first studied lists of unrelated items (e.g., table, lock) followed by a recognition test with three types of items: (1)...
Gaze Behavior in Analytical and Holistic Face Processing
We conducted two experiments examining children's and adults' gaze behavior when processing faces analytically (focusing on a single feature) or holistically (comparing the overall similarity of the faces). Children 6-8 and 9-10 years of age and adults...
Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Learning: Evidence from the Serial Reaction Time Task
High and low working memory (WM) capacity individuals performed the serial reaction time task under both incidental and intentional learning conditions to determine the role of WM capacity in the learning of sequential information. WM capacity differences...
Language Switching and the Effects of Orthographic Specificity and Response Repetition
In two experiments, Greek-English bilinguals alternated between performing a lexical decision task in Greek and in English. The cost to performance on switch trials interacted with response repetition, implying that a source of this "switch cost" is...
Optimal Classifier Feedback Improves Cost-Benefit but Not Base-Rate Decision Criterion Learning in Perceptual Categorization
Unequal payoffs engender separate reward- and accuracy-maximizing decision criteria; unequal base rates do not. When payoffs are unequal, observers place greater emphasis on accuracy than is optimal. This study compares objective classifier (the objectively...
Recognition Memory and Introspective Remember/know Judgments: Evidence for the Influence of Distractor Plausibility on "Remembering" and a Caution about Purportedly Nonparametric Measures
One popular technique in the study of human recognition memory involves the elicitation of remember and know judgments and the attribution of those judgments to qualitative states of memory retrieval. An alternative view, reviewed here, implicates quantitative,...
Temporal References in Dreams and Autobiographical Memory
In an attempt to determine whether temporal references identified in dreams follow the same temporal distributions as those documented for autobiographical memories, 28 younger women (18-35 years of age) and 30 older women (60-77 years of age) kept a...
The Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory Is Not a Fixed Number of Objects
Luck and Vogel (1997) have reported several striking results in support of the view that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has a fixed capacity of four objects, irrespective of how many relevant features those objects comprise. However, more recent studies...
The Locus of Semantic Priming in RSVP Target Search
At what stage does semantic priming affect accuracy in target search? In two experiments, participants viewed two streams of stimuli, each including a target word among distractors. Stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the targets (T1 and T2) ranged...
Timing Attention: Cuing Target Onset Interval Attenuates the Attentional Blink
Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second...
Working Memory and Executive Function: The Influence of Content and Load on the Control of Attention
In a series of three experiments, increasing working memory (WM) load was demonstrated to reduce the executive control of attention, measured via task-switching and inhibitory control paradigms. Uniquely, our paradigms allowed comparison of the ability...
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