Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 35, No. 1, January

Automatic Activation of Task-Related Representations in Task Shifting
Stimulus displays consisting of a target and a distractor can produce task conflicts when target and distractor are associated with different tasks. The present study examined whether these stimulus-induced task conflicts are affected by priming the...
Diversion of Attention in Everyday Concept Learning: Identification in the Service of Use
Many people tend to believe that natural categories have perfectly predictive defining features. They do not easily accept the family resemblance view that the features characteristic of a category are not individually sufficient to predict the category....
Familiarity from Orthographic Information: Extensions of the Recognition without Identification Effect
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of letter location information in recognition memory judgments. The experiments used the recognition without identification paradigm (Peynircioglu, 1990), in which participants first attempt to...
Graded Motor Responses in the Time Course of Categorizing Atypical Exemplars
The time course of categorization was investigated in four experiments, which revealed graded competitive effects in a categorization task. Participants clicked one of two categories (e.g., mammal or fish) in response to atypical or typical exemplars...
Irrelevant Speech Effects and Sequence Learning
The irrelevant speech effect is the finding that performance on serial recall tasks is impaired by the presence of irrelevant background speech. According to the object-oriented episodic record (O-OER) model, this impairment is due to a conflict of order...
Linguistic Focus and Memory: An Eye Movement Study
We report an eyetracking study investigating the effects of linguistic focus on eye movements and memory during two readings of a text. Across two presentations of the text, a critical word either changed to a semantically related word or remained unchanged....
Metaphor and Readers' Attributions of Intimacy
Previous theorists have suggested that figurative language may be an especially salient means by which speakers and addressees establish and recognize specific feelings of interpersonal closeness. To explore readers' sensitivity to this interpersonal...
Nonintentional Analogical Inference in Text Comprehension
We present findings suggesting that analogical inference processes can play a role in fluent comprehension and interpretation. Participants were found to use information from a prior relationally similar example in understanding the content of a later...
On the Nature of the Affective Priming Effect: Effects of Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and Congruency Proportion in Naming and Evaluative Categorization
In line with the hypothesis that affective priming of evaluative categorization responses is based on processes that operate at a response selection stage, it has been observed that increasing the proportion of congruent trials brings about increased...
Reversing the Picture Superiority Effect: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off Study of Recognition Memory
Speed-accuracy trade-off methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. With these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and required to make recognition decisions under various time...
Sample Size and the Detection of Means: A Signal Detection Account
Using statistical theory as a basis, Kareev (e.g., 1995) claimed that people's ability to correctly infer the existence of a population correlation should be greater for small than for large samples. Simulations by R. B. Anderson, Doherty, Berg, and...
Serial Position Effects in Short-Term Visual Memory: A SIMPLE Explanation?
A version of Sternberg's (1966) short-term visual memory recognition paradigm with pictures of unfamiliar faces as stimuli was used in three experiments to assess the applicability of the distinctiveness-based SIMPLE model proposed by Brown, Neath, and...
The Effects of Social Pressure on False Memories
The present experiments were designed to examine the effects of social pressure on false memories. Participants studied lists created to elicit false memories and then worked in conjunction with virtual confederates on a recognition memory task. In Experiment...
The Mnemonic Effects of Recall on Immediate Retention
In three experiments, we investigated the mnemonic effects of an initial recall on later recall in an immediate memory setting. Recall is generally assumed to interfere with the recall of subsequent items (output interference), but previous experiments...
The Relationship of Analogical Distance to Analogical Function and Preinventive Structure: The Case of Engineering Design
Analogy was studied in real-world engineering design, using the in vivo method. Analogizing was found to occur frequently, entailing a roughly equal amount of within- and between-domain analogies. In partial support for theories of unconscious plagiarism...
The Role of Reminding in Long-Term Memory for Temporal Order
Order codes are one of the three main types of information that have been hypothesized to underlie memory for the times of life events. Published evidence for the theory, however, has come exclusively from research in which brief retention intervals...
The Spread of the Phonological Neighborhood Influences Spoken Word Recognition
In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical...
Using Prior Knowledge to Minimize Interference When Learning Large Amounts of Information
In three experiments, we examined mediated learning in situations involving learning a large amount of information. Participants learned 144 "facts" during a learning phase and were tested on facts during a test phase. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants...
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