Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 35, No. 8, December

Adaptation Effects of Highly Familiar Faces: Immediate and Long Lasting
A central problem of face identification is forming stable representations from entities that vary-both in a rigid and nonrigid manner-over time, under different viewing conditions, and with altering appearances. Three experiments investigated the underlying...
Age and Redintegration in Immediate Memory and Their Relationship to Task Difficulty
It is commonly assumed that as short-term memory tasks become more difficult, a transient phonological trace that supports recall loses its fidelity. Recall can still be achieved through a process called redintegration, where long-term phonological or...
A High-Distortion Enhancement Effect in the Prototype-Learning Paradigm: Dramatic Effects of Category Learning during Test
Recent research suggests that exemplar models of classification are disconfirmed by the finding of extreme prototype-enhancement effects and steep typicality gradients in a version of the prototype-learning paradigm. We argue that these results are due...
Auditory Recognition without Identification
When visual recognition test items are unidentifiable-through fragmentation, for example-participants can discriminate between unidentifiable items that were presented recently and those that were not. The present study extends this recognition without...
Developing Rich and Quickly Accessed Knowledge of an Artificial Grammar
In contrast to prior research, our results demonstrate that it is possible to acquire rich, highly accurate, and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar. Across two experiments, we trained participants by using a string-edit task and highlighting...
Divided Attention Modulates Semantic Activation: Evidence from a Nonletter-Level Prime Task
Research has recently shown that semantic activation is modulated in proportion to the amount of attention required for letter-level processing of the prime (the attention modulation hypothesis; Smith, Bentin, & Spalek, 2001). In this study, we examined...
Examining the Efficiency of Schedules of Distributed Retrieval Practice
Given that students typically have a sizeable amount of course material to learn but a finite amount of study time, evaluating the efficiency of study schedules is important. We explored the efficiency of various schedules of distributed retrieval plus...
Formal Notations Are Diagrams: Evidence from a Production Task
Although a general sense of the magnitude, quantity, or numerosity of objects is common in both untrained people and animals, the abilities to deal exactly with large quantities and to reason precisely in complex but well-specified situations-to behave...
How Implicitly Activated and Explicitly Acquired Knowledge Contribute to the Effectiveness of Retrieval Cues
The extralist cued recall task simulates everyday reminding because a memory is encoded on the fly and retrieved later by an unexpected cue. Target words are studied individually, and recall is cued by associatively related words having preexisting forward...
Iffy Beliefs: Conditional Thinking and Belief Change
The ability to entertain possibilities and draw inferences about them is essential to human intelligence. We examine the hypothesis that conditional if-then statements trigger a mental simulation process in which people suppose the antecedent (if statement)...
Implicitly Activated Memories Are Associated to General Context Cues
Words having more densely entangled associative structures are more likely to be recalled in the presence of related extralist cues. A context-modified PIER2 model predicts that the implicit activation of such structures during study connects them to...
"I Remember/know/guess That I Knew It All Along!": Subjective Experience versus Objective Measures of the Knew-It-All-Along Effect
The knew-it-all-along (KIA) effect occurs when individuals report that they previously knew something that they learned only recently. People often err when reporting the level of knowledge they had prior to feedback, but there is no research exploring...
Limits on the Role of Retrieval Cues in Memory for Actions: Enactment Effects in the Absence of Object Cues in the Environment
Verb-object phrases (open the umbrella, knock on the table) are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study (also called subject-performed tasks) than if they have merely been learned verbally (verbal tasks). This enactment effect...
Looking Back across the Life Span: A Life Story Account of the Reminiscence Bump
The reminiscence bump is a robust finding in the autobiographical memory literature: Adults recall more events from the second and third decades of life than from other periods. Berntsen and Rubin (2004; Rubin & Berntsen, 2003) proposed a life script...
No Evidence for Rule-Based Processing in the Inverse Base-Rate Effect
The inverse base-rate effect in categorization (Medin & Edelson, 1988) arises when participants assign an ambiguous stimulus to a category that occurred less frequently than an alternative category, against the principles of Bayesian decision making....
Preferred Mental Models in Reasoning about Spatial Relations
The theory of mental models postulates that individuals infer that a spatial description is consistent only if they can construct a model in which all the assertions in the description are true. Individuals prefer a parsimonious representation, and so,...
Reasoning with Conditionals: Does Every Counterexample Count? It's Frequency That Counts
A series of experiments investigated what determines people's degree of belief in conditionals and their readiness to draw inferences from them. Information on the frequency of exceptions to conditional rules was contrasted with information about the...
Revising What Readers Know: Updating Text Representations during Narrative Comprehension
Reading comprehension involves not just encoding information into memory, but also updating and revising what is already known or believed. For example, as narrative plots unfold, readers often must revise the expectations they have constructed from...
Rote Memory and Arithmetic Fact Processing
The goal of the study was to examine the part played by skill in memorizing arbitrary sequences in the efficiency with which normal young adults perform simple arithmetic fact problems. The first experiment showed a clear independent role for sequence...
Strategy Transitions during Cognitive Skill Learning in Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Interitem Confusability
Groups of young and old adults were trained for four sessions on a set of 24 alphabet-arithmetic problems. Problem sets were either highly confusable or highly distinct. Power-function and mixture-model fits to the means and standard deviations of the...
Task Set Persistence Modulates Word Reading Following Resolution of Picture-Word Interference
We extend the finding that word reading slows following successful responses to a color-word Stroop interference task (Masson, Bub, Woodward, & Chan, 2003). Word reading was assessed in a picture-word interference task in which subjects alternated...
The Activation-Selection Model of Meaning: Explaining Why the Son Comes out after the Sun
The activation-selection model (ASM) of determining the meaning of an ambiguous word is unique in that it is able to account for the long-term effects of meaning selection without an explicit mechanism for suppressing the representation of the nonselected...
The Effects of Divided Attention at Study and Test on False Recognition: A Comparison of DRM and Categorized Lists
Three experiments investigated the effects of divided attention at encoding and retrieval on false recognition. In Experiment 1, participants studied word lists in either full or divided attention (random number generation) conditions and then took part...
The Emotional Memory Effect: Differential Processing or Item Distinctiveness?
A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatcning negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words,...
The Face Inversion Effect Is Not a Consequence of Aberrant Eye Movements
The face inversion effect is the finding that inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than other inverted objects. The present study explored the possibility that eye movements have a role in producing the face inversion effect. In Experiment...
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