Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 35, No. 2, March

An Imperfect Relationship between Prospective Memory and the Prospective Interference Effect
Three experiments examined the functional relationship between the frequency of prospective responding and the prospective interference effect within the context of a task switching paradigm. Prospective responding was less frequent across the experiments...
An Investigation into the Resource Requirements of Event-Based Prospective Memory
The multiprocess view proposes that both strategic and automatic processes can support prospective memory. In three experiments, we embedded a prospective memory task in a lexical decision task; cues were either highly associated with response words...
Can Tutoring Improve Performance on a Reasoning Task under Deadline Conditions?
The present study examined the effectiveness of a tutoring technique that has been used to identify and address participants' misunderstandings in Wason's selection task. In particular, the study investigated whether the technique would lead to improvements...
Components of Events and Processes
Rips and Estin (1998) provided evidence that mental events such as dreaming are more homogeneous than physical events such as checking out a book; that is, their parts are more difficult to distinguish. In their experiment, participants listed more distinctive...
Converging on a New Role for Analogy in Problem Solving and Retrieval: When Two Problems Are Better Than One
People often fail to retrieve examples analogous to a current problem or situation. There is good evidence that comparing structurally matching cases facilitates subsequent analogical access. However, current approaches offer little at the time of memory...
Equivalent Irrelevant-Sound Effects for Old and Young Adults
Three experiments are reported in which a total of 182 old and 193 young adults recalled sequences of digits presented visually in silence or accompanied by office noise. In each experiment, an effect of irrelevant sound was found-that is, a reduction...
Inadvertent Plagiarism in Young and Older Adults: The Role of Working Memory Capacity in Reducing Memory Errors
Two experiments examined inadvertent plagiarism in young and older adults. Young and older adults took turns generating category exemplars in small groups, and after a short retention interval recall was tested and subjects were asked to generate new...
Individual Differences in Current Events Knowledge: Contributions of Ability, Personality, and Interests
What accounts for individual differences in the sort of knowledge that people may draw on in everyday cognitive tasks, such as deciding whom to vote for in a presidential election, how to invest money in the stock market, or what team to bet on in a...
Learning Lyrics: To Sing or Not to Sing?
According to common practice and oral tradition, learning verbal materials through song should facilitate word recall. In the present study, we provide evidence against this belief. In Experiment 1, 36 university students, half of them musicians, learned...
Memory Strength and the Decision Process in Recognition Memory
We investigated the role that memory strength plays in the decision process by examining the extent to which strength is used as a cue to dynamically modify recognition criteria. The study list consisted of strong and weak items, with strength a function...
Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Recognition Memory
This study argues for the importance of physical word features in recognition memory by investigating the influence of orthographic distinctiveness. Experiment 1 demonstrated a mirror effect in a yes/no recognition test by manipulating orthographic neighborhood...
Repetition Blindness Is Orientation Blind
In identifying rapid sequences of three letters, subjects were worse at identifying the first and third letters when they were the same than when they were different, indicating repetition blindness (RB). This effect occurred regardless of the angular...
Sex Differences in Dynamic Spatial Ability: The Unsolved Question of Performance Factors
Males and females differ in several cognitive abilities, although the largest gap can be found in spatial ability. Some published studies make the claim that performance factors, which can be either subject- or task-related variables, explain these differences....
Source Monitoring Is Not Always Enhanced for Valenced Material
Source monitoring for valenced materials has received very little attention from researchers interested in the residual effects that emotion can have on memory. The three previous studies that examined memory for valenced material found a source-monitoring...
Source-Monitoring Judgments about Anagrams and Their Solutions: Evidence for the Role of Cognitive Operations Information in Memory
Generating solutions to anagrams leads to a memory advantage for those solutions, with generated words remembered better than words simply read. However, an additional advantage is not typically found for solutions to difficult anagrams relative to solutions...
Spatial Language Influences Memory for Spatial Scenes
Does language influence recognition for spatial scenes? In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed ambiguous pictures, with or without spatial sentences. In a yes-no recognition task, only the spatial sentences group made more false alarms toward the...
The Generation Effect: A Meta-Analytic Review
The generation effect refers to the finding that subjects who generate information (e.g., produce synonyms) remember the information better than they do material that they simply read. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize 445 effect sizes...
The Representation of Explicit Motor Sequence Knowledge
Much research has investigated the representation of implicitly learned motor sequences: Do subjects learn sequences of stimuli, responses, response locations, or some combination? Most of the work on this subject indicates that when sequences are learned...
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