Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 36, No. 6, September

Cue Usage in Memory for Location When Orientation Is Fixed
In previous research, it was demonstrated that including one or three cues surrounding a circular field had no effect on spatial memory for dot locations when the field's orientation was fixed, but that there were very large effects when orientation...
Different Developmental Patterns of Simple Deductive and Probabilistic Inferential Reasoning
In three studies, we examined simple counterexample-based and probabilistic reasoning in children 6, 7, and 9 years of age. In the first study, participants were asked to make conditional (if-then) inferences under both categorical (certain or uncertain)...
Effects of Grammar Complexity on Artificial Grammar Learning
The present study identified two aspects of complexity that have been manipulated in the implicit learning literature and investigated how they affect implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars. Ten finite state grammars were used to vary...
Forgetting Is Effortful: Evidence from Reaction Time Probes in an Item-Method Directed Forgetting Task
Reaction time (RT) was measured in response to visual detection probes embedded within an item-method directed forgetting paradigm. In Experiment 1, study words were presented individually followed by an instruction to remember (R) or forget (F). Probes...
Indirect Assessment of Visual Working Memory for Simple and Complex Objects
Previous research has shown that visual search performance is modulated by the current contents in visual working memory (VWM), even when the contents of VWM are irrelevant to the search task. For example, visual search is faster when the target-rather...
Is Awareness Necessary for True Inference?
In transitive inference, participants learn a set of context-dependent discriminations that can be organized into a hierarchy that supports inference. Several studies show that inference occurs with or without task awareness. However, some studies assert...
Putting the Psychology Back into Psychological Models: Mechanistic versus Rational Approaches
Two basic approaches to explaining the nature of the mind are the rational and the mechanistic approaches. Rational analyses attempt to characterize the environment and the behavioral outcomes that humans seek to optimize, whereas mechanistic models...
Recency and Primacy in Causal Judgments: Effects of Probe Question and Context Switch on Latent Inhibition and Extinction
Traditional associative models assume that associative weights are updated on a trial-by-trial basis. As a result, it is usually expected that responses based on these weights will tend to reflect the most recently presented contingencies. However, a...
Similarity and Proximity: When Does Close in Space Mean Close in Mind?
People often describe things that are similar as close and things that are dissimilar as far apart. Does the way people talk about similarity reveal something fundamental about the way they conceptualize it? Three experiments tested the relationship...
Subtraction by Addition
University students' self-reports indicate that they often solve basic subtraction problems (13 - 6 = ?) by reference to the corresponding addition problem (6 + 7 = 13; therefore, 13 - 6 = 7). In this case, solution latency should be faster with subtraction...
The Effects of Generation on Auditory Implicit Memory
The generation manipulation produces the classic functional dissociation between explicit and implicit memory. This dissociation has been explained by the transfer-appropriate processing (TAP) framework, which emphasizes the overlap in cognitive processes...
The Mnemonic Advantage of Processing Fitness-Relevant Information
Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) proposed that our memory systems serve an adaptive function and that they have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information. In a series of experiments, they demonstrated that processing words according...
The Multidetermined Nature of Idiom Processing
Models of idiom comprehension differ in their predictions concerning compositionality: Some claim that idiomatic meaning is the result of compositional analysis initiated at the earliest stages of comprehension, whereas others claim that compositional...
When Attention Matters: The Curious Incident of the Wandering Mind
Attention plays an essential role in the construction of the mental models necessary to make sense of ongoing events. In this article, we consider the implications of temporary inattention during reading for the construction and updating of the situation...
Why Are Some People's Names Easier to Learn Than Others? the Effects of Face Similarity on Memory for Face-Name Associations
Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical...
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