Memory & Cognition

A journal that covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, and problem solving in a scholarly forum.

Articles from Vol. 36, No. 3, April

A Constrained Rasch Model of Trace Redintegration in Serial Recall
The notion that verbal short-term memory tasks, such as serial recall, make use of information in long-term as well as in short-term memory is instantiated in many models of these tasks. Such models incorporate a process in which degraded traces retrieved...
Action and the Representation of Distance in Cognitive Maps Acquired through Imagined Traversal: The Development of a New Methodology
A new methodology examined the effects of action on memory for traversed distance using an imagined route traversal task. Blindfolded participants learned environments through auditory verbal description, imagining themselves walking in synchronization...
Automatic Semantic Feedback during Visual Word Recognition
Four experiments were conducted to determine whether semantic feedback spreads to orthographic and/or phonological representations during visual word recognition and whether such feedback occurs automatically. Three types of prime-target word pairs were...
Category Labels versus Feature Labels: Category Labels Polarize Inferential Predictions
What makes category labels different from feature labels in predictive inference? This study suggests that category labels tend to make inductive reasoning polarized and homogeneous. In two experiments, participants were shown two schematic pictures...
Eye Movements during the Reading of Compound Words and the Influence of Lexeme Meaning
We examined the use of lexeme meaning during the processing of spatially unified bilexemic compound words by manipulating both the location and the word frequency of the lexeme that primarily defined the meaning of a compound (i.e., the dominant lexeme)....
False Memory for Associated Word Lists in Individuals and Collaborating Groups
Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we investigated recall of presented and nonpresented associated words by collaborating groups, nominal groups, and individuals. In Experiment 1, participants recalled individually and then recalled in...
Feedback Enhances the Positive Effects and Reduces the Negative Effects of Multiple-Choice Testing
Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other...
Feeling of Knowing and Duration of Unsuccessful Memory Search
Five experiments examined the impact of feeling of knowing on decisions to continue or to terminate the search of memory in question answering. First, two pairs of experiments respectively scrutinized knowledge about (1) ordinary facts and (2) national...
How Do Readers Handle Incorrect Information during Reading?
How do readers deal with information that is inconsistent with what they know? This question has typically been addressed by examining whether carefully designed texts can help readers revise inaccurate beliefs. However, texts sometimes present incorrect...
Intuition versus Analysis: Strategy and Experience in Complex Everyday Problem Solving
Research on dual processes in cognition has shown that explicit, analytical thought is more powerful and less vulnerable to heuristics and biases than is implicit, intuitive thought. However, several studies have shown that holistic, intuitive processes...
Mental Imagery and Chunks: Empirical and Computational Findings
To investigate experts' imagery in chess, players were required to recall briefly presented positions in which pieces were placed on the intersections between squares (intersection positions). Position types ranged from game positions to positions in...
Path Planning under Spatial Uncertainty
In this article, we present experiments studying path planning under spatial uncertainties. In the main experiment, the participants' task was to navigate the shortest possible path to find an object hidden in one of four places and to bring it to the...
Poor Readers' Use of Orthographic Information in Learning to Read New Words: A Visual Bias or a Phonological Deficit?
In this study, we examined the ability of 11-year-old poor readers and reading age controls to learn new print vocabulary. It was found that the poor readers were slower than the controls to learn to read a set of non words accurately but that, when...
Primacy or Recency Effects in Forming Inductive Categories
Five experiments provide evidence for a primacy effect in the formation of inductive categories. Participants completed a category induction task in which they observed and reproduced a set of lines that varied in length but were serially ordered so...
Social Influences on Spatial Memory
Three experiments were performed to examine the joint influences of spatial and social categories on memory for maps. Participants learned a map and descriptive information about small town businesses and, afterward, completed distance estimation and...
Sound Source Location Modulates the Irrelevant-Sound Effect
Participants memorized lists of visually presented digits in silence or while ignoring distractor sounds that either came from the front and thus from the direction in which participants' attention was oriented, or from behind. Distractor sounds impaired...
Structural Priming among Prepositional Phrases: Evidence from Eye Movements
This experiment was designed to determine whether prepositional phrases are treated as a single undifferentiated type, or whether the parser may recognize different subtypes. In the experiment, participants read temporarily ambiguous prime and target...
The Effect of Task Location and Task Type on Backward Inhibition
Alternating tasks in a sequence of task switches results in impaired performance, relative to switches across three different tasks, an effect known as backward inhibition. Despite the robustness of this effect across task and response variations, backward...
View Combination in Scene Recognition
Becoming familiar with an environment requires the ability to integrate spatial information from different views. We provide evidence that view combination, a mechanism believed to underlie the ability to recognize novel views of familiar objects, is...
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