Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience

Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience is a magazine focusing on Psychology

Articles from Vol. 5, No. 2, June

Affective Personality Differences in Neural Processing Efficiency Confirmed Using fMRI
To test for a relation between individual differences in personality and neural-processing efficiency, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity within regions associated with cognitive control during a demanding working...
Behavioral and Neural Predictors of Upcoming Decisions
Although it is widely known that brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the ventral striatum play large roles in decision making, their precise contributions remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging...
Individual Capacity Differences Predict Working Memory Performance and Prefrontal Activity Following Dopamine Receptor Stimulation
Dopamine receptors are abundant in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a critical region involved in working memory. This pharmacological fMRI study tested the relationships between dopamine, PFC function, and individual differences in working memory capacity....
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: Editorial
To paraphrase Robert Benchley, there are two kinds of people in this world: those who believe there are two kinds of people in the world and those who think that difference is just noise. For decades, scientists who study mental processes and behavior...
Individual Differences in FFA Activity Suggest Independent Processing at Different Spatial Scales
The brain processes images at different spatial scales, but it is unclear how far into the visual stream different scales remain segregated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found evidence that BOLD activity in the fusiform face area (FFA)...
Individual Differences in Trait Rumination and the Neural Systems Supporting Cognitive Reappraisal
Cognitive reappraisal can alter emotional responses by changing one's interpretation of a situation's meaning. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that using cognitive reappraisal to increase or decrease affective responses involves left prefrontal...
Neural Correlates of Evaluation Associated with Promotion and Prevention Regulatory Focus
Higgins (1997, 1998) proposed two self-regulatory or motivational systems-one sensitive to gains (promotion) and one sensitive to losses (prevention). To examine the interaction of motivation and cognition, participants made good/bad or abstract/concrete...
Personality from a Controlled Processing Perspective: An fMRI Study of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Self-Consciousness
Although neuroticism has been central to most theories of personality, self-reported neuroticism has had limited success in predicting expected behavioral outcomes. The reason for this may be due, in part, to the imprecision of self-reports. The purpose...
Posterior Parietal Cortex Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity
Humans show a severe capacity limit in the number of objects they can store in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We recently demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging that VSTM storage capacity estimated in averaged group data correlated...
Sex, Stress, and Fear: Individual Differences in Conditioned Learning
It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex,...
Structural Brain Variation, Age, and Response Time
Response time (RT) generally slows with aging, but the contribution of structural brain changes to this slowing is unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to determine gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes in 9 middle-aged adults...
Toward a Taxonomy of Attention Shifting: Individual Differences in fMRI during Multiple Shift Types
Although task switching is often considered one of the fundamental abilities underlying executive functioning and general intelligence, there is little evidence that switching is a unitary construct and little evidence regarding the relationship between...
Understanding the Effects of Task-Specific Practice in the Brain: Insights from Individual-Differences Analyses
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study practice effects in different mental imagery tasks. The study was designed to address three general questions: First, are the results of standard group-based analyses the same as those of a regression...
Variance Maps as a Novel Tool for Localizing Regions of Interest in Imaging Studies of Individual Differences
Cognitive neuroimaging studies of individual differences seek to reveal brain mechanisms of cognition by associating intersubject variability in brain activation with other variables of interest, such as sex, personality trait, or mood state. The choice...
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