Journal of Small Business Strategy

The semiannual journal publishes applied research on topics related to entrepreneurship, small business, and community development

Articles

Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
Welcome to Volume 21, Number 1 of the Journal of Small Business Strategy. First, you will notice that I am the new Editor. Paul Belliveau and Bruce Kemelgor are the new Associate Editors. This represents a total change-over of the Editors at JSBS from...
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Balancing Exploration and Exploitation in a Declining Industry: Antecedents to Firm Adaptation Strategy and Performance
ABSTRACTThis paper utilizes the theoretical framework of Raisch and Birkinshaw (2008: 381) to investigate the performance implications of three strategic adaptation approaches (exploitation, exploration, and organizational ambidexterity) in 94 small...
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Performance of Historically Underrepresented Firms in the Public-Private Sector
ABSTRACTThis study examines the performance of historically underrepresented firms, which includes women-owned businesses and socially disadvantaged businesses. We examine performance in the context of securing public contracts and compare the performance...
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The Effect of Early Internationalization on Survival, Consistency, and Growth of Export Sales
ABSTRACTThis paper presents the results of a ten year longitudinal analysis of almost 19,000 Polish manufacturing firms engaged in export operations. Export dynamics was measured by the rate of growth, consistency of export sales and survival in international...
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What Attracts Directors to Boards of Small- and Mid-Sized Companies?
ABSTRACTThis paper explores the reasons why outside corporate directors choose to serve on the boards of small- to mid-sized companies. Resource dependence theory explains the importance of outside directors on corporate boards, especially for small-...
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New Product Development Project Management: Differences between Korean and U.S. Small Business Executives
ABSTRACTThe manifestation of cross-cultural differences in project management practices in small firms has received scant attention in existing literature. Based on a sample of 66 U.S. business executives and 62 Korean business executives, we find empirical...
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Creating Entrepreneurs: Making Miracles Happen
Creating Entrepreneurs: Making Miracles Happen Edited by Fred Kiesner Reviewed by Fred Fry Bradley Universityffry@bradley.eduWhen I heard that my old friend Fred Kiesner was writing a book, I knew it would be good. I knew this because Kiesner only does...
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Vol. 20, No. 2, Fall

Disproportionate Distribution of Stock Ownership among Initial Founders in Startup Ventures: Survey Results and a Ranking of Factors
ABSTRACTTo date little research has been performed as to how founders of startup ventures determine initial distribution of ownership. In many instances, distribution of ownership is proportionally divided, even though individual contributions to the...
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THE DISPROPORTIONATE COSTS OF FORMING LLCs VS. CORPORATIONS: THE IMPACT ON SMALL FIRM LIABILITY PROTECTION
ABSTRACTThe LLC is increasingly the ownership form of choice by nascent small business owners as it has some advantages over corporations and sole proprietorships and partnerships. Despite its advantages, some states have higher filing fees for LLCs...
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Perceived Strategic Uncertainty and Strategy Formation in Emerging Markets
ABSTRACTWe investigate the relationships between perceived strategic uncertainty and strategy formation mode using a sample of 286 small and medium sized enterprises in the emerging markets of the Philippines, Vietnam, and China. Our results highlight...
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The Use and Content of Formal Rating Systems in Angel Group Investment Initial Screening Stages
ABSTRACTWe examined the formal screening process of thirty-eight Angel Investment Groups. Within our sample, over eighty percent of the Angel Investment Groups used a committee of members to perform the initial screening of submitted business plans,...
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The Value of Business Plans for New Ventures: Company and Entrepreneur Outcomes
ABSTRACTWriting business plans is often the first step for entrepreneurs in developing new venture ideas. Trade press publications support their value and include templates or even software for crafting the business plan. However, the academic literature...
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Family-Member and Non-Family-Member Managers in Family Firms: Adding a Seventh Country to the International Database - Kosovo
ABSTRACTExtending earlier analyses of the authors in other countries with regard to the inclusion of family-member managers and non-family-member managers in family businesses, and the relationship of this variable to certain management activities, styles...
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Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
Allow me to introduce myself. I'm Paul Stephens from Bradley University and I am the new editor of JSBS. It has been a challenge learning my newest job, but the learning curve hasn't been too steep due to the guidance of the outgoing editor. There are...
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A Revised Conceptual Model of the Firm-Level Entrepreneurial Process
ABSTRACTResearch suggests that existing conceptualizations of firm-level entrepreneurship may not be sufficient in fully explaining the construct (Brown, Davidsson, & Wiklund, 2001; Brush, Manolova, & Edelman, 2008). In particular, there is little...
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Business Incubators: Leveraging Skill Utilization through Social Capital
ABSTRACTThis study examines the role that social capital among tenant companies of a business incubator plays in the acquisition and utilization of business skills by those companies. Social capital is a resource derived from the structure and content...
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How Data Integration Systems Affect Strategic Decision Making in Small Firms
ABSTRACTSmall companies increasingly use computer information systems to gather data to improve decision correctness. Therefore, it is important to determine if a type of information system is effective. We focused on systems which integrate data from...
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Comparing Nascent Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs and Expectations of Firm Growth
ABSTRACTWhile both entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial processes yield new ventures, similarities and differences between these two initiation processes and their impact on subsequent venture performance may be substantial. Operating factors that are...
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Selecting a Legal Structure: Revisiting the Strategic Issues and Views of Small and Micro Business Owners
ABSTRACTEntrepreneurs often make decisions about the legal structure of their new business without fully considering the effect of the decision on other strategically important concerns. The question of whether the new venture should be formed as a sole...
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Founder Influence in Family Businesses: Analyzing Combined Data from Six Diverse Countries
ABSTRACTThis study analyzed a combined sample of 593 family businesses in the United States, Croatia, Egypt, France, India and Kuwait to determine how the influence of the founder(s) relates to certain important family business managerial characteristics....
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Vol. 19, No. 2, Fall/Winter

Entrepreneurship Journal Rankings across the Discipline
ABSTRACTIn this paper we report on the results of a survey of 230 members of the Small Business Institute® and the U.S. Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship on journal rankings. The top four entrepreneurship journals were Entrepreneurship:...
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Determinants of B2c Ec Success on Market Performance of Different Sizes of Firms in Taiwan's E-Brokerage Sector
ABSTRACTGuided by a financial model, this study is the first to integrate Miles and Snow's (1978) strategic typology as an external industry effect and the resource-based view of the firm as an internal effect to explain market performance of different...
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Does Expertise Matter in an Ever-Changing and Uncertain Environment? a Study of the Entrepreneurial Process of Serial and Novice Entrepreneurs
ABSTRACTThis study contributes to the literature on serial and novice entrepreneurs by focusing on the process of entrepreneurship and the role of different knowledge structures in this process. We use theories from cognitive psychology that relate to...
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Organizational Life Cycle and Innovation among Entrepreneurial Enterprises
ABSTRACTOrganizational life cycle has been studied for several decades by management researchers. Most efforts, however, have focused on relationships between a specific life cycle stage and another construct, such as organizational effectiveness, management...
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Measuring Wealth Generation in Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Organizations: An Alternative to the Capital Asset Pricing Model
ABSTRACTThere is no generally accepted measure of wealth created by new ventures, as most early-stage firms do not have positive cash flows, and early-stage discount rates cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy as required by the Capital Asset...
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Start-Up Resources and Entrepreneurial Discontinuance: The Case of Nascent Entrepreneurs1
ABSTRACTBuilt on the resource-based view of the firm, this study addresses two major research questions: (1) what resources are salient in entrepreneurial discontinuance; (2) To what extent, does the impact of resources on the odds of discontinuance...
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Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall/Winter

From the Editor
Thanks for your continued interest in the Journal of Small Business Strategy. I hope this issue piques your intellectual curiosity and provides value to you in your teaching, research, or practice.We begin this issue with an invited paper. Bill Gartner...
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The Influence of Pre-Venture Planning on New Venture Creation
ABSTRACTWe use a sample of nascent entrepreneurs from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) to explore whether engaging in business planning and the degree of planning formalization, combined with other activities, was more likely to result...
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The Hunt for the Heffalump Continues: Can Trait and Cognitive Characteristics Predict Entrepreneurial Orientation?
ABSTRACTIn this paper, we aimed to get more insight into what typifies Flemish entrepreneurs. Therefore, we compared entrepreneurs with non-entrepreneurs for five characteristics (tolerance for ambiguity, self-efficacy, proactive personality, locus of...
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A Ranking of State Governments' Efficient Use of Expenditures to Encourage Small Firm Births
ABSTRACTWe assume state governments are rational in their budgeting behavior. If this is true, then it is intuitive that they would allocate their expenditures so as to receive the maximum possible benefit for the least cost. Within the parameters of...
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Examing the Impact of Small Business Institute Participation on Entrepreneurial Attitudes
ABSTRACTStudents enrolled in the Small Business Institute® (SBI) at six universities completed the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation survey. A pre-test was administered during the first week of the semester followed by a post-test at the conclusion...
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The Effects of the Small Business Founder's Need for Cognition on Early Stage Performance
ABSTRACTThis study assesses the relationship between the need for cognition and early stage organizational performance for a sample of small business owners who started new childcare ventures. Their need for cognition was assessed as a predictor of performance...
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Small Business Operations Strategy: Aligning Priorities and Resources
ABSTRACTThis article reports the perceptions of small business owner/managers in Jamaica regarding how to use operations strategy for improving firm profitability. The perspectives of classical economics and behavioral theory were integrated to evolve...
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100 Great Businesses and the Minds Behind Them
100 Great Businesses and the Minds Behind Them By Emily Ross and Angus Holland Sourcebooks, Inc.: Naperville, IL: 2006So you already know that Michael Dell and Bill Gates dropped out of their universities, and perhaps you know that Phil Knight sold tennis...
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Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
In this issue, we continue moving toward our goal of gently nudging up the quality of the papers published in the Journal of Small Business Strategy while keeping the overall thrust of the papers applied. In this issue, for example, you will see some...
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Sme Performance: A Case for Internal Consistency
ABSTRACTWe develop the theoretical arguments for a contingent path relationship among variables representing the environment, capabilities, strategic orientation, and firm performance. The premise underpinning our study is that internal consistency or...
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The Development and Statistical Testing of a Nascent Organization Structure Sequence Model
ABSTRACTThis study identified episodic stages of growth used by nascent hyper-growth firms. Based on the literature, an 11-stage hypothetical episodic Nascent Organization Structure Sequence (NOSS) model was postulated. Sixty-two Inc-500 fastest-growing...
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Coopetition as a Small Business Strategy: Implications for Performance
ABSTRACTThis paper explores coopetition, a strategy that combines cooperation and competition in addressing relationships between firms. We examine the underlying nature of coopetition, and evaluate the extent to which it represents a relevant strategy...
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Small Business Internet Use and Strategic Flexibility
ABSTRACTResearch on SME Internet use has focused almost exclusively on factors leading to the adoption of Internet technologies. In this study, we focus on the potentially valuable connection between Internet use and strategic flexibility. Specifically,...
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Entrepreneurial Strategies in a Declining Industry
ABSTRACTThis study explores the strategies of small firms in the North Carolina furniture supply industry, an industry that has suffered significant job loss due to foreign competition. In case studies of 17 firms, managers identified the strategies...
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Do Family Meetings Really Matter? Their Relationship to Planning and Performance Outcomes in Small Family Businesses
ABSTRACTThis empirical research focused on examining the relationship between family meetings and the characteristics of those family meetings (who participated and issues discussed), planning processes (succession planning, estate planning, family mission...
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Is Informal Planning the Key to the Success of the Inc. 500?
ABSTRACTA review of the research on planning indicated that formal planning might be unnecessary for small, fast-growing companies. Many small, flourishing companies are operating with no written business plan. This study surveyed INC. 500 CEOs to investigate...
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Vol. 17, No. 2, Fall/Winter

From the Editor
I am excited about this issue of the Journal of Small Business Strategy. For the first time in several years, we have an invited article to lead off the issue. We asked Mike Hitt of Texas A & M who is a well-known scholar in management to write a...
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The Internationalization of Smes in Emerging Economies: Institutional Embeddedness and Absorptive Capacities
ABSTRACTWe examine the importance of institutional embeddedness and dynamic capabilities in the internationalization strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in emerging economies. We focus on two types of SMEs - incumbent SMEs and entrepreneurial...
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Business Students' Perceptions of Employment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises versus Multinational Corporations: Investigating the Moderating Effects of Academic Major, Gender, and Personality
ABSTRACTResearch suggests that students are likely to seek out employment opportunities within large organizations first and often view small businesses as a second choice (Teo & Poon, 1994; Moy & Lee, 2002). The purpose of this paper was to...
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An Exploration of Firm Performance Factors in Family Businesses: Do Families Value Only the "Bottom Line"?
ABSTRACTAchieving the founder's vision is considered one of the most important organizational objectives for the continued survival and success of family firms. Yet, family dynamics is usually recognized as one of the main causes as to why less than...
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Do Strategic Business Networks Benefit Male- and Female-Owned Small-Community Businesses?
ABSTRACTThis research, based on social capital and strategic networking theory, explored small business owners' use of formal networking as a strategy for conducting business in competitive markets. Data were collected from 285 men and 111 women, who...
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Impact of Planning and Control Sophistication in Small Business
ABSTRACTSignificant research has been conducted using numerical measures to establish criteria and determine the relationship between planning sophistication and business success. This research takes a different approach by using a one-on-one interview...
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Angel Investment Criteria
ABSTRACTStart-up businesses often need external financing to grow. These new ventures frequently turn to business angel investors for capital. Angels, who are often wealthy individuals, provide early stage financing, called seed capital, for these start-up...
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Startups That Work
Startups That Work By Joel Kurzman and Glen Rifkin Penguin Group: New York, 2005Reviewed byThomas NelsonUniversity of LouisvilleStartups That Work (Penguin Group: New York, 2005) by Joel Kurtzman and Glen Rifkin offers a thorough and instructive analysis...
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Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
The articles in this issue can be divided along two dimensions. The first is the conceptual vs. applications dimension. The Mitchell/Cohen and Morris et. al. articles fall near the conceptual end of the continuum, while the remainder are nearer the applications...
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Stakeholder Theory and the Entrepreneurial Firm
ABSTRACTThis paper offers a typology of a stakeholder theory of the entrepreneurial firm, such that a new lens for entrepreneurial management emerges. We (1) generated a list of purported "theories of the firm" from the literature; (2) applied qualifying...
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After Receiving Financing, Do Inc. 500 Companies Continue to Utilize Their Business Plan?
ABSTRACTSmall, successful companies included on the INC. 500 list were surveyed to determine whether these companies use a business plan once financing has been obtained. The responding CEOs indicated that the business plan is a document of substantial...
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Cognitive and Affective Service Marketing Strategies for Fine Dining Restaurant Managers
ABSTRACTThis study extends the research on the importance of attitudes and emotions related to consumption experience at fine dining establishments. Prior research suggests that emotions are a primary source of human motivation; for small business restaurant...
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Is the Business Model a Useful Strategic Concept? Conceptual, Theoretical, and Empirical Insights
ABSTRACTAlthough a widely used managerial concept, the notion of a "business model" has only recently begun to receive serious attention from researchers. While disparate opinions exist regarding its nature, the business model holds promise as a focal...
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Developing a Supply Chain Strategy for a Midsize Restaurant Chain
ABSTRACTIn this paper, we develop a supply chain strategy for a growing midsize restaurant chain. Based on a case research of The HoneyBaked Ham Company of Ohio, we propose that an integrated approach should be applied to handle the challenges presented...
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Restaurant Revenue Management: An Investigation into Changing Standard Operating Procedures to Maximize Revenue
ABSTRACTChanging the standard operating procedures that are used for serving customers during periods of high versus low demand is a method of revenue management employed in restaurants. This study examined the extent to which this practice is used in...
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Strategy-Specific Decision Making: A Guide for Executing Competitive Strategy
Strategy-Specific Decision Making: A Guide for Executing Competitive Strategy By William Forgang ISBN: 0-7656-1288-7INTRODUCTIONOverview of the BookThis relatively inexpensive textbook's unique strength is that it presents the author's theoretical approach...
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Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall/Winter

From the Editor
With a journal title such as the Journal of Small Business Strategy, articles can either address strategy in a very broad sense or in a very specific sense. In the broader sense, articles can focus on a plethora of topics including start-up issues, financing,...
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The Influences of Entrepreneurial Motivation and New Business Acquisition on Strategic Decision Making
ABSTRACTStrategic management is the domain of upper-level corporate management. The ability to make corporate decisions based on the company's internal strengths and externalities in the macro-environment is a key duty of top management. In small businesses,...
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Sales Force Automation Tools for Small Businesses
ABSTRACTThe field salesperson is the small businesses' primary contact with customers and must be well-informed and responsive to customer needs. Information technology tools can help the salesperson meet these needs. However, the question of exactly...
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Building Sustainable Success in Art Galleries: An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Strategies
ABSTRACTHistorically, art galleries have operated in a cottage industry that placed a premium on building unique relations with artists and clients. Recent economic and technological trends threaten the viability of this model. Art galleries now face...
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Revenue Management: A Strategy for Increasing Sales Revenue in Small Businesses
ABSTRACTRevenue management is a strategy used by companies in many industries to match products and services to customers in order to increase sales revenues. Although revenue management is well suited to meet some of the challenges of small businesses,...
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Employee Accommodations in Small Business Organizations
ABSTRACTBecause of limited financial and human resources, small entrepreneurial organizations often struggle to meet work accommodation needs of their employees. Further complicating this challenge is an absence of professional human resource expertise...
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Evaluating Lawyer Service Quality in Chapter 7 Bankruptcies: The Case of Small Professional Businesses
ABSTRACTThe increasingly competitive nature of the American legal environment is causing small law firms and solo practitioners to adopt many of the tools and attitudes of business. There is a potential conflict between lawyers' wishes to maximize revenue...
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The Ten Faces of Innovation
The Ten Faces of Innovation By Tom Kelley with Jonathan Littman ISBN 0-385-51207-4For decades we have recognized that small businesses owners need to create a "learning" organization in order to both innovate and accelerate the innovation process. The...
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Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
The really astute readers of the Journal of Small Business Strategy will note a format change in this issue. We made the decision to try a two-column format after looking at how other journals print theirs. Although there is no consistency among journals,...
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Felt Fair Pay of Small to Medium-Sized Enterprise Owners in Finland and Latvia: An Examination of Jaques' Equity Construct*
ABSTRACTThis study tests a portion of Jaques' theory of equitable payment, using two samples of small to medium-sized business owners in Finland and Latvia. Results support Jaques' proposition about who would be satisfied with their pay level and who...
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A Cross-National Investigation of First-Generation, Second-Generation, and Third-Generation Family Businesses: A Four Country Anova Comparison
ABSTRACTThis study compared first, second, and third-generation family businesses in the United States, Croatia, France, and India - countries with significant differences in cultures, economies, levels of entrepreneurial activity, and family business...
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The Old Girls' Network
The Old Girls' Network By Sharon Whiteley, Kathy Elliott, and Connie DuckworthThe Old Girls' Network should be firmly strapped to the tool belt of women of all ages who are dreaming about becoming an entrepreneur. And, it should especially become required...
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An Examination of the Accuracy of Small Manufacturer Chief Executive Officers in Assessing the Legality of Selected Actions
ABSTRACTThis inquiry investigated the degree of familiarity of C.E.O.s of small manufacturing firms with federal regulations. Important findings were that the managers, especially those employed by firms producing industrial goods, were deficient in...
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Sbir Programs and Product Commercialization: Kinetic Art & Technology - an Example
ABSTRACTThe SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) program provides a way to assist entrepreneurs in commercializing their technology, and it provides government access to new technology. There are many issues facing technology start-ups. Some of...
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Strategic Cognitive Maps of Small Business Leaders
AbstractCognitive maps influence organizational strategic behaviors by guiding the perceptions of key decisions makers. This paper empirically examines these maps in small business leaders who have the ability to strongly influence an organization's...
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UNDERSTANDING ADOPTION OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SMEs
ABSTRACTThe Internet has been viewed as a powerful tool enabling small firms to "level the playing field" when competing with larger firms. Yet, the benefits of e-business are accruing to larger, rather than smaller, firms. While numerous studies have...
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Vol. 15, No. 2, Winter

Attracting Today's Educated Workforce: Opportunities and Challenges for Small Business Firms
ABSTRACTAttracting quality employees is particularly critical for the small business; the increasingly required advanced skills of today's educated workforce present an additional challenge. This segment of the workforce is reputed to make job selection...
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From the Editor
In general, the Journal of Small Business Strategy' does not do theme issues. We prefer to have a variety of topics treated in each issue. However, this issue, rather coincidentally, addressed two major themes. The first deals with small business environments...
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Small Business Manager Scanning Emphases and the Dominant Logic of the Business-Level Strategy
ABSTRACTNormative prescription dictates that the pursuit of a business-level strategy can be best achieved when strategic decision makers focus their attention on those functions and activities most relevant to that particular strategy (Porter, 1980;...
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Types of Product Innovations and Small Business Performance in Hostile and Benign Environments
ABSTRACTThe relationship between innovation and performance has been widely studied. In addition, many studies have examined moderating effects of types of competitive environments on this relationship. However, little work has been done to examine how...
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Family Business Ownership and Management: A Gender Comparison
ABSTRACTWhile family firms account for an estimated 80 percent of all American businesses, and about one-third of these family businesses are owned by women, there has been minimal study of gender issues in family business ownership and management. In...
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The Venture
The Venture By Jeff Cox 1997 ISBN: 0694518581It may seem odd that I would personally review a book for JSBS, more odd that I would review a novel, and still more odd that it is eight years old. I recently found it while browsing the book store, read...
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THE LINK BETWEEN LEADERSHIP, STRATEGY, AND PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING SMEs
ABSTRACTSustainable competitive performance, in today's turbulent environment, is widely thought to depend on the quality of leadership and strategy. In this paper, we empirically examine the relationship between strategy, leadership and performance...
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A Study on the Major Problems of U.S. Women-Owned Small Businesses
ABSTRACTThis paper investigates the types of problems women-owned businesses face and the relative significance of these problems. The 800 U.S. women business owners were drawn at random from the membership directory of NAWBO (National Association of...
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Computer Use in Small U.S. Firms: Is There a Digital Divide?
ABSTRACTThis article uses data from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances to explore the use of computers and the Internet by small firms. Results reveal that firms owned by black men and firms owned by Asian men were significantly less likely to...
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Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
This issue marks the first issue of the Journal of Small Business Strategy to be published by Bradley University in conjunction with the Small Business Institute® after being housed for more than five years at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. I begin...
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Minority and Women Entrepreneurs Contracting with the Federal Government
ABSTRACTThis article uses learning network theory as a foundation upon which the assistance and barriers minority and women entrepreneurs face when attempting to contract with the federal government may be studied. The public policy programs analyzed...
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Business Plans Made Easy, Second Edition
BUSINESS PLANS MADE EASY, SECOND EDITION By Mark Henricks & John Riddle Entrepreneur Press, 2002, 336 pg. ISBN: 1-89198443-8Business Plans Made Easy: It's Not As Hard As You Think, presents an excellent, ready-touse methodology for writing a business...
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Idea or Prime Opportunity? a Framework for Evaluating Business Ideas for New and Small Ventures
ABSTRACTEntrepreneurs and entrepreneurship educators recognize that only a small percentage of venture ideas actually represent viable business opportunities. This paper addresses the important issue of opportunity recognition using a framework designed...
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From Mass Customization to Customization: An Opportunity for Entrepreneurial Differentiation
ABSTRACTSmall, entrepreneurial businesses must be able to successfully compete with both large, well-established firms and smaller, agile firms. By making use of modern technology to meet the product needs and wants of individual consumers, smaller firms...
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A Comparative Profile of Male- and Female-Owned Small Accounting Practices
ABSTRACTThis study examines the similarities and differences in business, personal, and attitudinal characteristics reported by male- and female-owned small accounting firms. The overall objective of the study is to produce profiles based on gender for...
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Creating Entrepreneurs from the Ranks of the Unemployed
BEST PAPER AWARD WINNER2004 Small Business Institute ConferenceABSTRACTA little known provision of the North America Trade Agreement (NAFTA) legislation of 1993 is a mechanism that assists displaced workers with an interest in becoming entrepreneurs...
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The Consequences of Fairness for a Small Professional Services Firm
ABSTRACTThis paper distinguishes among client perceptions of outcome, procedural and interactional justice in professional services. We surveyed clients of a small accounting firm and focused specifically on fairness perceptions in income tax services....
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