Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is an academic journal published by the American Philosophical Society.

Articles

Vol. 163, No. 2, June

Dionysus's Enigmatic Thyrsus
Dionysus is often depicted in Greek carvings and vase paintings as holding a staff, or thyrsus (0fipooç), which serves as his attribute as well as his symbol in that it is used to identify his female followers, the Maenads (Figure 1). It has been defined...
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How Art Works: A Conversation between Philosophy and Psychology 1
Early Psychological Approaches to AestheticsFor centuries, aesthetics was effectively a branch of philosophy. The questions asked were philosophical ones that could be answered by reason and did not call for empirical evidence-questions such as: What...
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How Russian Hackers and Trolls Exploited U.S. Media in 2016 1
As Election Day approached in 2016, up to one in eight prospective voters had not yet decided for whom to ballot for president.2 The factors accounting for that atypical state of affairs included dissatisfaction with the candidacies of Republican nominee...
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Democracy When the People Are Thinking: Deliberation and Democratic Renewal 1
All over the world democracy is in disarray. Approval ratings for key leaders and institutions are vanishingly low. The public distrusts the policy elites, and the elites fear the angry voices of populism. The very idea of democracy is under threat from...
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Two Concepts of Freedom (of Speech) 1
Contemporary ConfusionsOf the many challenges facing democracy in America today, few perplex the public mind like the freedom of speech. Until recently, however, few freedoms seemed more obvious and ours. Let all else descend into the maelstrom of partisanship...
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Otis Dudley Duncan
2 DECEMBER I92I . l6 NOVEMBER 2004Otis Dudley Duncan died at the age of 82 on November 16, 2004. It is our view, and we expect that it is also the view of all others who are able to judge quantitative sociology, that Otis Dudley Duncan was the most important...
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Democracy Today: Ancient Lessons, Modern Challenges-Introduction 1
When former APS Member James Madison wrote his famous 10th Federalist essay in November 1787, he tried to purge the word democracy from the American political vocabulary. By "a pure democracy," Madison wrote, "I mean a small society consisting of a small...
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Vol. 163, No. 1, March

Dinner with Ben Franklin: The Origins of the American Philosophical Society
We gather today to celebrate the American Philosophical Society's 275th anniversary. But in fact, our story begins 16 years earlier, in 1727, here in Philadelphia, and it is that origin story that is my focus this afternoon. The measure of my success...
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A Catholic Whig in the Age of Reason: Science, Sociability, and the Everyday Life of William H. Keating
Scientist William H. Keating probably reflected on his good fortune in the twilight of 1833. He wrapped up his first year as a Pennsylvania Assembly Representative for Philadelphia City, his courtship of Elizabeth Bollman intensified, and his involvement...
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Alfred W. Crosby
15 january 1931 .14 march 2018Alfred Worcester Crosby, Jr., professor emeritus of American studies, geography, and history at the University of Texas at Austin, died on March 14, 2018, at the age of 87. He had lived on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts,...
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When We Were Young: The American Philosophical Society in the 18th Century
In 2018 the American Philosophical Society celebrated its 275th anniversary, though in truth, 1743 is a shadowy date. Some think the APS began in 1727, when Benjamin Franklin, at age 21-having resided in Philadelphia for less than two years since he...
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Tibor Jermy
31 january 1917 .23 september 2014Tibor Jermy, the Hungarian entomologist, was born in the then-Hungarian town of Locse (now Levoca, Slovakia). He moved to Hungary with his parents after the reshaping of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy made life...
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Vol. 162, No. 4, December

Alfred G. Knudson
9 August 1922 . 10 July 2016Alfred G. Knudson was born in Los Angeles, California in 1922 to parents who worked with numbers and brought about his lifelong interest in math. Caltech was his "neighborhood school" and a natural choice for college. Although...
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Paul F. Miller, Jr
19 October 1927 . 9 September 2017In September 2017 the APS lost one of its most enthusiastic and engaged members. Paul F. Miller, Jr., was elected to membership in 2005 and served as a member of Council and chairman of the Investment Committee from...
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The Other Presidency: Thomas Jefferson and the American Philosophical Society 1
Let us begin with the simple facts. In 1780, the American Philosophical Society elected Thomas Jefferson to its membership, the beginning of a relationship that would last until Jefferson's death in 1826. During those 46 years, Jefferson served as a...
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Deaths of Members Recorded through 31 December 2018
Year of ElectionAdams, Robert McC., in Chula Vista, CA, on 27 January, aet. 91.1974Beitzel, George B. "Spike," in Redding, CT, on 26 June, aet. 90.1987Billington, James H., in Washington, DC, on 20 November, aet. 89 ....1988Blobel, Günter, in New York...
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Two Chips off the Same Block: Benjamin Franklin's Library Company and Philosophical Society and the Saga of Their 275-Year Relationship 1
One frequently hears the phrase "sister institutions" used to refer to a pair or group of institutions that share many attributes. Colleges of a certain type can be sister institutions; the Seven Sisters come readily to mind. Likewise, libraries of a...
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Vol. 162, No. 3, September

The Past and Future of Voting Rights 1
As I was listening to the APS Member induction ceremony it occurred to me that I am going to speak about some of the more irrational features of our democratic system before one of the most rational rooms of people that could be put together. I want...
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"Like Opening a Pyramid and Finding an Atomic Bomb": Derek De Solla Price and the Antikythera Mechanism 1
The present article is, in a sense, a review-60 years on-of an American Philosophical Society research grant and its outcomes. In 1958, the Society awarded Derek John de Solla Price (1922-1983) Grant No. 2379, to the amount of $460, for a proposal entitled...
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Two Hundred Twenty Years of Vaccination 1
The procedure we call vaccination started about 220 years ago when the physician and scientist Edward Jenner administered the cowpox virus (or perhaps what was really the horsepox virus) to protect against smallpox. Now vaccination is practiced in every...
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Tore Frängsmyr
Tore Frängsmyr, who dominated the history of science in Sweden from his chair at Uppsala University for a quarter century, began his literary career at the age of 14 by writing newspaper reports of the great events in his small village.1 Since nothing...
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Alan Cameron
Alan Cameron, a prolific and widely respected scholar of classical literature and ancient history, died at the age of 79 in 2017. He had been diagnosed with ALS, a disease that he endured with characteristic good humor, even as it consumed him far more...
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Jefferson's Ornithology Reconsidered 1
The contributions of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826; Figure 1) to American science have been extolled by many authors; however, the extent to which he can legitimately be called an ornithologist has been a matter of some debate.2 It is well known that his...
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Vol. 162, No. 2, June

The Legacy of Tom Starzl Is Alive and Well in Transplantation Today 1
INTRODUCTIONIt is an honor to celebrate the life and career of Dr. Thomas Starzl with the American Philosophical Society. As Dr. Clyde Barker so elegantly summarized in his talk, "Tom Starzl and the Evolution of Transplantation,"2 Dr. Starzl was a larger-than-life...
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AHMED H. ZEWAIL: 26 February 1946 . 2 August 2016
It is often proclaimed that a stylist is someone who does and says things in memorable ways. From an analysis of his experimental prowess, his written contributions, his lectures, and even from the details of the illustrations he used in his published...
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The Future of the Professions 1
TWO FUTURESThere are two possible futures for the professions. Both of these rest on technology. The first is reassuringly familiar to most professionals-it is simply a more efficient version of what we have today. In this future, professionals of many...
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Introduction to APS Session in Celebration of Keith Stewart Thomson 1
I was asked to introduce a session in celebration of Keith Stewart Thomson as he finished his term as Executive Officer.2 In 2012 I participated in a search for Pat McPherson's successor as Executive Officer of the APS. Because Keith Thomson was a new...
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Thomas E. Starzl: 11 March 1926 . 4 March 2017
The evolution of transplantation is one of medicine's greatest stories. Much of it was written by Tom Starzl, who died at the age of 90 on March 4, 2017. He added a new dimension to the field of medicine by innovating and perfecting methods of replacing...
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The Remarkable Nature of Edward Lear 1
INTRODUCTIONAlthough he is best remembered today as a whimsical nonsense poet, adventurous traveler, and painter of luminous landscapes, Edward Lear (1812-1888) is revered in scientific circles as one of the greatest natural history painters of the 19th...
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JOYCE OLDHAM APPLEBY: 9 April 1929 . 23 December 2016
Married with young children and living in Pasadena, California in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Joyce Appleby might have had a clear path in front of her as a suburban mother and then matron in a prosperous, unthreatened social world. Those who knew...
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Vol. 162, No. 1, March

Walter Burkert
"That good-natured chap will no doubt pass me, even if I skip classes the last three weeks of the seminar." Such were my brother's words. I had just finished high school in July 1959 and asked him to go hitchhiking with me through Scandinavia. He was...
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Bernard M. W. Knox
By temperament Bernard Knox was a pioneer, and his early work on Sophocles opened up new and exciting ways of approaching Greek tragedy. The preface of his first book, Oedipus at Thebes (Yale University Press 1957) begins with a characteristically bold...
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Broken Chains of Custody: Possessing, Dispossessing, and Repossessing Lost Wampum Belts
IntroductionIn the spring of 2009, two historical shell bead wampum belts1-identified as "early" and "rare" and valued at between $15,000 and $30,000 each-were advertised for sale at a Sotheby's auction of American Indian art objects2 belonging to the...
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The Indo-Europeanization of Europe: An Introduction to the Issues 1
Introduction to the Players and the GameThe panel represented in these pages explored events that are from the distant past but have had a broad impact, even into the present day, affecting everyone in the United States and in North America more generally,...
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Franz Boas's Legacy of "Useful Knowledge": The APS Archives and the Future of Americanist Anthropology 1
It is a pleasure and privilege, though also somewhat intimidating, to address the assembled membership of the American Philosophical Society. Like the august founders under whose portraits we assemble, Members come to hear their peers share the results...
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Ancient DNA Suggests Steppe Migrations Spread Indo-European Languages 1
Thank you for the opportunity to speak to this group. It is a particular pleasure to speak after Andrew Garrett. I'm going to talk about my work in ancient DNA, which is an extraordinary new enterprise that has become possible on a genome-wide scale...
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New Perspectives on Indo-European Phylogeny and Chronology 1
One of the oldest questions in linguistics concerns the origins of Indo-European languages-a large family of several hundred languages, including English and the other Germanic languages, Spanish and the other Romance languages, and their ancestors (including...
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Vol. 161, No. 4, December

Something Old, Something New, Something Pseudo, Something True: Pejorative and Deferential References to Phrenology since 1840 1
IntroductionThe old phrenology, as we have seen, was wrong in its theory, wrong in its facts, wrong in its interpretation of mental processes, and never led to the slightest practical result. The new phrenology is scientific in its methods, in its observations,...
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Arthur Walton Litz: 31 October 1929 * 4 June 2014
Arthur Walton Litz, the Holmes Professor Emeritus of BellesLettres in the Department of English at Princeton University, died in Princeton on June 4, 2014. He had been in intermittent poor health since before his retirement in 1994. Walt Litz, as he...
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The Philosophical Hitchcock: Vertigo and the Anxieties of Unknowingness 1
The possible intersection of film and philosophy has become a more prominent topic in the last 20 or 30 years. By this intersection I do not mean the philosophy of film, the kind of art it is and its relation to other arts, but film as itself a mode...
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Jeremy Randall Knowles: 28 April 1935 * 3 April 2008
Jeremy Knowles had two fascinating and challenging careers. As a chemist for 30 years, he made major contributions to understanding the catalytic action of enzymes, huge protein molecules that govern myriad biological processes. As Dean of the Faculty...
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Robert A. Dahl: 17 December 1915 * 5 February 2
Robert A. Dahl, widely appreciated as the world's leading student of democracy, passed away in New Haven, Connecticut in February 2014. I write as one of those appreciators as well as Dahl's colleague in the Yale Political Science Department and a longtime...
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Jerome Seymour Bruner: 1 October 1915 * 5 June 2016
As a student of narrative, Jerome (Jerry) Seymour Bruner knew well that one can tell many stories about an individual person, event, and life. Indeed, at the start of his autobiography, Jerry Bruner wrote, "I can find little in [my childhood] that would...
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Vol. 161, No. 3, September

Martin Litchfield West
23 SEPTEMBER 1937 . 13 JULY 2015An obituary writer has an obligation to present an overview of her subject's life. For a scholar, it might begin with their school, and would certainly include details of their university and academic career. She should...
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Introduction to the Symposium on Observed Climate Change 1
In the spring of 2016, the American Philosophical Society's Committee on Meetings asked me to organize and later moderate a symposium on observed climate change. After consulting with several APS Members, I selected three leading scientists to present...
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Serendipity in Discovery: From Nitric Oxide to Viagra 1
IntroductionA fitting opening to a discussion centered on the biological effects of nitric oxide (NO) is Charles Sheeler's 1930 painting entitled American Landscape (Figure 1). In this painting, Sheeler depicts the Ford Motor Company's River Rouge manufacturing...
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Past, Present, and Future of Glacier Archives from the World's Highest Mountains 1
IntroductionThe ice core paleoclimate research program at the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC), formerly the Institute of Polar Studies, of The Ohio State University (OSU) began in 1974 as an outgrowth of the U.S. polar ice core drilling...
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Har Gobind Khorana
9 JANUARY 1922 . 9 NOVEMBER 2011Har Gobind Khorana was one of the founding spirits of what we now call chemical biology and a pioneer at the dawn of the molecular biology era. Gobind traveled an almost unfathomable journey from an impoverished village...
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Tree Rings Reveal Climate Change Past, Present, and Future 1
IntroductionEarth's climate system exhibits variability in both temperature and hydroclimate across a range of spatial and temporal scales covering several orders of magnitude. However, existing observations of the climate system from weather stations...
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Halet ÇAmbel
27 AUGUST 1916 . 12 JANUARY 2014Prof, Dr, Halet Çambel, born in 1916, passed away in Istanbul at the age of 97, Even though Çambel was one of the leading archaeologists of her time, she was highly esteemed in several other domains as well, including...
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Satellite Contributions to Climate Change Studies 1
IntroductionThis year, well-deserved attention has been given to longtime NASA employee Katherine Johnson (Figure 1) for her crucial calculations for the flights of the Mercury and Apollo astronauts in the 1960s-attention that has come through the best-selling...
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Vol. 161, No. 2, June

David Malcolm Raup 24 April 1933 * 9 July 2015
24 april 1933 . 9 july 2015In 1983, I delivered my first big lecture at a national meeting, a symposium on extinction at the Field Museum in Chicago. Job completed, I descended from the rostrum as the next speaker, David Raup, was ascending. Meeting...
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Ray David Owen 30 October 1915 * 21 September 2014
30 october 1915 . 21 september 2014The authors are among many indebted to Ray Owen for his unique and endearing responses to students and his incredible mentorship. To his friends (and that included almost everyone), Ray was a complex man with a simple...
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Meyer Howard Abrams 23 July 1912 * 21 April 2015
23 july 1912 . 21 april 2015Meyer Howard ("Mike") Abrams, Class of 1916 Professor of English, Emeritus, who died in Ithaca at age 102, was one of the most distinguished and influential scholars produced by the American academy and an almost mythical...
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Why Odysseus Was Right about Persons 1
Two quotations from the Odyssey, each spoken by a man about his wife: The first is from Odysseus, when he has returned at last to Ithaca after 10 years of the Trojan War and nine years of wandering. He is disguised as a beggar while he plans his battle...
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Martí De Riquer 3 May 1914 * 17 September 2013
Martí de Riquer died on September 17, 2013, at the age of 99. For days afterward, the Barcelona press was full of the grief and affection of acolytes and admirers alike. The well-attended funeral on September 19, accompanied by a Latin Mass at the wishes...
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Reflections on the "Natural Born Citizen" Clause as Illuminated by the Cruz Candidacy 1
Among the many intriguing questions raised but never answered during the bizarre presidential primary season of 2015-16 was one that has arisen only rarely in American history-a question about presidential eligibility that is pertinent in itself as well...
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Georges le Rider 27 January 1928 * 3 July 2014
27 january 1928 . 3 july 2014Georges Le Rider passed away on July 3, 2014 in Givors, near Lyon, where he decided to spend the last years of his life. Darkened by tragedies at the beginning and the end, his life was mostly luminous and glorious. Le Rider's...
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Vol. 161, No. 1, March

Stanley Hoffmann 27 November 1928 * 13 September 2015
STANLEY HOFFMANN, University Professor at Harvard, a member of the university's Government Department for 58 years, and a founder and long-time director of Harvard's Center for European Studies, died on September 13, 2016 at the age of 86 in Cambridge,...
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Did Einstein Get It Right? A Centennial Assessment
I.IntroductionThe year 2015 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's general theory of relativity, and relativists worldwide celebrated this historic occasion. As if this were not enough, on September 14, 2015, scientists at the...
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"Keep the Damned Women Out": The Struggle for Coeducation in the Ivy League, the Seven Sisters, Oxford, and Cambridge 1
My subject is the flood of decisions for coeducation at elite colleges and universities in the United States and the United Kingdom in the period 1969-74. Why did so many very traditional, very conservative, very elite, very old colleges and universities...
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Benedict Richard O’gorman Anderson 26 August 1936 * 13 December 2015
ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT EXPERTS on Southeast Asia, and a leading theorist of nationalism whose Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism became required reading for students in a wide range of disciplines in the humanities...
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Bryan Campbell Clarke 24 June 1932 * 27 February 2014
PROFESSOR BRYAN CLARKE was a world-leading evolutionary geneticist. He combined theoretical understanding of the principles of evolutionary biology, an appreciation of the process of molecular evolution, and a love of fieldwork, through which he studied...
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Kepler: A Brief Discussion of the Mission and Exoplanet Results
INTRODUCTIONThe Kepler Mission was a PI-led NASA Discovery mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of other stars (i.e., exoplanets); characterize those planets; and explore the diversity...
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Twins Reared Together and Apart: The Science Behind the Fascination
The reasons behind the widespread interest in twins are fascinating to consider. There is no question that people are intrigued by twins-wherever I go I am asked about my work by both professionals and non-professionals. I often ask them, "Why do you...
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Vol. 160, No. 2, June

Anthony Lewis: 27 March 1927 * 25 March 2013
I PICTURE HIM sitting taking notes. At a conference. In my office. At a table in the Columbia Journalism School classroom that we shared for 23 years, during the segments when I was conducting the class. Always taking notes. He was a listener. A sponge...
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Vol. 159, No. 3, September

Will Marriage Disappear? 1
The origins of marriage in human history are murky. In the West, religiously sanctioned weddings were restricted to the wealthy and privileged until the Catholic Church began to rethink its policy of confining the sacrament of matrimony to the aristocracy...
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Vol. 159, No. 2, June

"A Net of Intrigue and Selfish Rivalry": Woodrow Wilson and Power Politics during World War I 1
Woodrow Wilson looms over American politics to a remarkable degree today, especially in connection with foreign policy debates. Both critics and supporters present Wilsonianism as a supposedly idealistic foreign policy focused on upholding international...
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Telecommunications in World War I 1
INTRODUCTIONI would like to thank the American Philosophical Society for the honor of this opportunity to address it. The subject of World War I is an enormous one, and I trust that the presentations this morning will whet your appetite to learn more...
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Michel Crozier: 6 November 1922 * 23 May 2013
MICHEL CROZIER EST MORT. Michel Crozier is dead, and I must write about him as a minor representative of the hundreds of his American friends. I will try, but I know too well the inadequacies of words. Michel was a model of an engaged social scientist,...
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William Warren Scranton: 19 July 1917 * 28 July 2013
IT WAS CERTAINLY NOT INEVITABLE that Bill Scranton would turn to politics. He never avowedly sought office. The office sought him-or rather his party leaders often turned to him-and his sense of noblesse oblige usually overrode any initial reluctance...
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Vol. 158, No. 4, December

The American Philosophical Society Protocols for the Treatment of Indigenous Materials
IntroductionThe creation of the American Philosophical Society Protocols for the Treatment of Indigenous Materials is the result of 3 years of close collaboration between the APS library staff, led by Librarian Martin Levitt,1 and the APS's Native American...
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Vol. 158, No. 2, June

Ronald Dworkin
11 DECEMBER 1931 · 14 FEBRUARY 2013When i was a very junior member of the harvard law school faculty-an assistant professor in his late 20s-i spent one saturday afternoon each month meeting informally with a remarkable little group that occasionally...
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Vol. 158, No. 1, March

Books and Men, Redux 1
"Another damned, thick, square book! Always scribble, scribble, scribble! Eh, Mr. Gibbon?" So the Duke of Gloucester is said to have exclaimed one day in 1781, when Edward Gibbon presented him with a copy of the second volume of The Decline and Fall...
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Lou Pollak: The Road to Brown V. Board of Education and Beyond
Books dominated each room in District Court Judge Louis H. Pollak's private chambers. Whether crammed on shelves, piled on top of chairs, or mixed together with briefs, law journals, and papers and stacked on top of desks and tables-they ruled. The chambers,...
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Conflict of Values: A Decision View 1
I want to address myself to some aspects of the foundations of the nature of value conflicts, questions whose answers have very real consequences. We do make far-sighted decisions, decisions whose consequences run into the very distant future. A current...
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