Claude Adrien Helvetius

Helvétius, Claude Adrien

Claude Adrien Helvétius (hĕlvē´shəs, Fr. klōd ädrēăN´ ĕlvāsyüs´), 1715–71, French philosopher, one of the Encyclopedists. He held the post of farmer-general (i.e., tax collector), an exceedingly remunerative position. In 1751 he retired to the country, devoting himself to writing and philanthropic enterprises. His book De l'esprit (1758, tr. Essays on the Mind, 1807) was regarded as a godless book and was condemned by the pope and by the Parlement of Paris. Agreeing with Locke's doctrine that the minds of men are originally blank tablets, Helvétius maintained that all men are born with equal ability and that distinctions develop from the totality of educational influences. Like Condillac he maintained that all forms of intellectual activity have their beginning in sensation. In ethics a utilitarian, he judged the good in terms of self-satisfaction and regarded self-interest as the sole motive for action. Both Jeremy Bentham and James Mill acknowledge his influence. Another book, De l'homme, posthumously published (1772) and translated, is called in English A Treatise on Man: His Intellectual Faculties and His Education (1777, tr. 1810, repr. 1969). The complete works of Helvétius were published in 1796 and 1818.

See study by D. W. Smith (1965).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Claude Adrien Helvetius: Selected full-text books and articles

The Authority of Experience: Sensationist Theory in the French Enlightenment By John C. O'Neal Pennsylvannia State University Press, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "Helvetius's Seminal Concept of Physical Sensibility"
Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill By Frederick Rosen Routledge, 2003
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Helvetius, the Scottish Enlightenment, and Bentham's Idea of Utility"
History of Political Ideas: Crisis and the Apocalypse of Man By Eric Voegelin; David Walsh University of Missouri Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "Helvetius"
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
National Character and Public Spirit in Britain and France, 1750-1914 By Roberto Romani Cambridge University Press, 2002
Librarian's tip: "The Widening of Societe: Helvetius, Mably again, and Holbach" begins on p. 51
Ideology By David Hawkes Routledge, 2003 (2nd edition)
Librarian's tip: "The French Connection: Condillac, Helvetius, and Holbach" begins on p. 51
Utilitarianism By Geoffrey Scarre Routledge, 1996
Librarian's tip: "Chastellux and Helvetius" begins on p. 50
The Classical Moralists By Benjamin Rand Houghton, Mifflin, 1937
Librarian's tip: "Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715-1771): De L'Esprit, or, Essays on the Mind" begins on p. 471
Les Philosophes: The Philosophers of the Enlightenment and Modern Democracy By Norman L. Torrey Capricorn Books, 1960
Librarian's tip: "Helvetius (1715-1771)" begins on p. 185
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