Michael Bakunin (Mikhail Bakunin)

Bakunin, Mikhail

Mikhail Bakunin (mēkhəyēl´ bəkōō´nyĬn), 1814–76, Russian revolutionary and leading exponent of anarchism. He came from an aristocratic family but entered upon revolutionary activities as a young man. He took part (1848–49) in the revolutions in France and Saxony and was sent back to Russia and exiled to Siberia. Escaping (1861), he went to London, where he worked with Aleksandr Herzen. In 1868, Bakunin became active in the First International, where, with his militant anarchist doctrines, he had great influence. These doctrines, however, brought him into conflict with Karl Marx, and he was expelled (1872). Bakunin believed that man is inherently virtuous and deserving of absolute freedom obtained through extreme individualism. He advocated violent overthrow of existing states and institutions as a necessary step to achieving such freedom. His writings include God and the State (1882, tr. 1893).

See studies by R. B. Saltman (1983) and A. Kelly (1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Michael Bakunin (Mikhail Bakunin): Selected full-text books and articles

Michael Bakunin By E. H. Carr Vintage Books, 1961
Portraits of Russian Personalities between Reform and Revolution By Richard Hare Oxford University Press, 1959
Librarian's tip: Chap. II "An Aristocratic Anarchist: Michael Bakunin"
History of Political Ideas: Crisis and the Apocalypse of Man By Eric Voegelin; David Walsh University of Missouri Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Revolutionary Existence: Bakunin"
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
The Emancipation of Labor: A History of the First International By Henryk Katz Greenwood Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Bakunin in the International"
Revolutionary Exiles: The Russians in the First International and the Paris Commune By Woodford McClellan Cass, 1979
Librarian's tip: "Bakunin in Limbo" begins on p. 127, "Bakunin in Lyon" begins on p. 140, and "The Bakuninist Surge" begins on p. 197
Nationalism and the International Labor Movement: The Idea of the Nation in Socialist and Anarchist Theory By Michael Forman Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: "Anarchy and Federation: Bakunin" begins on p. 22
Karl Marx: The Story of His Life By Franz Mehring; Edward Fitzgerald University of Michigan Press, 1962
Librarian's tip: "Bakunin's Agitation" begins on p. 402 and "The Bakuninist Opposition" begins on p. 462
Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements By George Woodcock World Publishing, 1962
Librarian's tip: Discussion of Michael Bakunin begins on p. 145
Anarchism, Internationalism and Nationalism in Europe, 1860-1939 By Levy, Carl The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 50, No. 3, September 2004
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