Friedrich Nietzsche

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (frē´drĬkh vĬl´hĕlm nē´chə), 1844–1900, German philosopher, b. Röcken, Prussia. The son of a clergyman, Nietzsche studied Greek and Latin at Bonn and Leipzig and was appointed to the chair of classical philology at Basel in 1869. In his early years he was friendly with the composer Richard Wagner, although later he was to turn against him. Nervous disturbances and eye trouble forced Nietzsche to leave Basel in 1879; he moved from place to place in a vain effort to improve his health until 1889, when he became hopelessly insane. Nietzsche was not a systematic philosopher but rather a moralist who passionately rejected Western bourgeois civilization. He regarded Christian civilization as decadent, and in place of its "slave morality" he looked to the superman, the creator of a new heroic morality that would consciously affirm life and the life values. That superman would represent the highest passion and creativity and would live at a level of experience beyond the conventional standards of good and evil. His creative "will to power" would set him off from "the herd" of inferior humanity. Nietzsche's thought had widespread influence but was of particular importance in Germany. Apologists for Nazism seized on much of his writing as a philosophical justification for their doctrines, but most scholars regard this as a perversion of Nietzsche's thought. Among his most famous works are The Birth of Tragedy (1872, tr. 1910); Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883–91, tr. 1909, 1930), and Beyond Good and Evil (1886, tr. 1907).

See his selected letters ed. by C. Middleton (1969); biographies by C. K. Brinton (1941, repr. 1965), H. A. Reyburn (1948, repr. 1973), I. Frenzel (1967), R. Hayman (1980, repr. 1999), L. Chamberlain (1996), C. Cate (2005), and J. Young (2010); studies by H. L. Mencken (1913, repr. 1993), R. Pfefler (1972), R. C. Solomon, ed. (1973), W. A. Kaufmann (4th ed. 1974), J. T. Wilcox (1974), J. P. A. Stern (1979), R. Schacht (1983), G. Clive (1984), R. J. Hollingdale (1985), A. Nehamas (1985), J. Köhler (tr. 1998), R. C. Solomon and K. M. Higgins (2000), R. B. Pippin (2010), K. Michalski (tr. 2011), and J. Ratner-Rosenhagen (2011).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Friedrich Nietzsche: Selected full-text books and articles

Friedrich Nietzsche: His Life and Thought By Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche; A. J. Hoover Praeger, 1994
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist By Walter Kaufmann Princeton University Press, 1974 (4th edition)
Nietzsche: The Key Concepts By Peter R. Sedgwick Routledge, 2009
Nietzsche: An Approach By Janko Lavrin Routledge, 2010
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future By Friedrich Nietzsche; Rolf-Peter Horstmann; Judith Norman; Judith Norman Cambridge University Press, 2002
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Joyful Wisdom By Friedrich Nietzsche; Thomas Common Frederick Ungar, 1960
Librarian's tip: also published as "The Gay Science"
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None By Friedrich Nietzsche; Thomas Wayne Algora, 2003
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra: An Edinburgh Philosophical Guide By Douglas Burnham; Martin Jesinghausen Edinburgh University Press, 2010
Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is; and, The Antichrist: A Curse on Christianity By Friedrich Nietzsche; Thomas Wayne Algora, 2004
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic By Friedrich Nietzsche; Maudemarie Clarke; Alan J. Swenswen Hackett Publishing, 1998
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Friedrich Nietzsche By Lee Spinks Routledge, 2003
The Flame of Eternity: An Interpretation of Nietzsche's Thought By Krzysztof Michalski; Benjamin Paloff Princeton University Press, 2012
Reading Nietzsche By Robert C. Solomon; Kathleen M. Higgins Oxford University Press, 1990
Nietzsche, Godfather of Fascism? On the Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy By Jacob Golomb; Robert S. Wistrich Princeton University Press, 2002
Nietzsche and Morality By Brian Leiter; Neil Sinhababu Oxford University Press, 2007
Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist By Peter Berkowitz Harvard University Press, 1996
Selected Letters of Friedrich Nietzsche By Friedrich Nietzsche; Christopher Middleton; Christopher Middleton Hackett, 1941
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
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