epistemology (ĬpĬs´təmŏl´əjē) [Gr.,=knowledge or science], the branch of philosophy that is directed toward theories of the sources, nature, and limits of knowledge. Since the 17th cent. epistemology has been one of the fundamental themes of philosophers, who were necessarily obliged to coordinate the theory of knowledge with developing scientific thought. Réné Descartes and other philosophers (e.g., Baruch Spinoza, G. W. Leibniz, and Blaise Pascal) sought to retain the belief in the existence of innate (a priori) ideas together with an acceptance of the values of data and ideas derived from experience (a posteriori). This position was basically that of rationalism. Opposed to it later was empiricism, notably as expounded by John Locke, David Hume, and John Stuart Mill, which denied the existence of innate ideas altogether. The impressive critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant had immense effects in an attempt to combine the two views. In later theories the split was reflected in idealism and materialism. The causal theory of knowledge, advanced by Alfred North Whitehead and others, stressed the role of the nervous system as intermediary between an object and the perception of it. The methods of perceiving, obtaining, and validating data derived from sense experience has been central to pragmatism, with the teachings of C. S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Sir Karl Popper developed the view that scientific knowledge rests on hypotheses that, while they cannot be positively verified, can be proven false and have withstood repeated attempts to show that they are. Philosophers in the 20th cent. have criticized and revised the traditional view that knowledge is justified true belief. A springboard for their research has been the thesis that all knowledge is theory-laden.

See A. D. Woozley, Theory of Knowledge (1949, repr. 1966); J. Dancy, Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology (1985); A. J. Ayer, The Problem of Knowledge (1956, repr. 1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Epistemology: Selected full-text books and articles

The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology
Paul K. Moser.
Oxford University Press, 2002
Knowledge Puzzles: An Introduction to Epistemology
Stephen Cade Hetherington.
Westview Press, 1996
Epistemology and Skepticism: An Enquiry into the Nature of Epistemology
George Chatalian.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1991
The Theory of Knowledge: A Thematic Introduction
Paul K. Moser; Dwayne H. Mulder; J. D. Trout.
Oxford University Press, 1998
Theory of Knowledge: An Introduction
A. D. Woozley.
Hutchinson's University Library, 1949
Partial Reason: Critical and Constructive Transformations of Ethics and Epistemology
Sally E. Talbot.
Greenwood Press, 2000
What Is and What Ought to Be Done: An Essay on Ethics and Epistemology
Morton White.
Oxford University Press, 1981
Bayesian Epistemology
Luc Bovens; Stephan Hartmann.
Clarendon Press, 2003
Enlightened Empiricism: An Examination of W.V. Quine's Theory of Knowledge
Roger F. Gibson Jr.
University Presses of Florida, 1988
Thomas Reid and the Story of Epistemology
Nicholas Wolterstorff.
Cambridge University Press, 2001
Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology
Earl Conee; Richard Feldman.
Clarendon Press, 2004
Existential Epistemology: A Heideggerian Critique of the Cartesian Project
John Richardson.
Clarendon Press, 1986
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