epistemology (ĬpĬs´təmŏl´əjē) [Gr.,=knowledge or science], the branch of philosophy that is directed toward theories of the sources, nature, and limits of knowledge. Since the 17th cent. epistemology has been one of the fundamental themes of philosophers, who were necessarily obliged to coordinate the theory of knowledge with developing scientific thought. Réné Descartes and other philosophers (e.g., Baruch Spinoza, G. W. Leibniz, and Blaise Pascal) sought to retain the belief in the existence of innate (a priori) ideas together with an acceptance of the values of data and ideas derived from experience (a posteriori). This position was basically that of rationalism. Opposed to it later was empiricism, notably as expounded by John Locke, David Hume, and John Stuart Mill, which denied the existence of innate ideas altogether. The impressive critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant had immense effects in an attempt to combine the two views. In later theories the split was reflected in idealism and materialism. The causal theory of knowledge, advanced by Alfred North Whitehead and others, stressed the role of the nervous system as intermediary between an object and the perception of it. The methods of perceiving, obtaining, and validating data derived from sense experience has been central to pragmatism, with the teachings of C. S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Sir Karl Popper developed the view that scientific knowledge rests on hypotheses that, while they cannot be positively verified, can be proven false and have withstood repeated attempts to show that they are. Philosophers in the 20th cent. have criticized and revised the traditional view that knowledge is justified true belief. A springboard for their research has been the thesis that all knowledge is theory-laden.

See A. D. Woozley, Theory of Knowledge (1949, repr. 1966); J. Dancy, Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology (1985); A. J. Ayer, The Problem of Knowledge (1956, repr. 1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Epistemology: Selected full-text books and articles

The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology By Paul K. Moser Oxford University Press, 2002
Knowledge Puzzles: An Introduction to Epistemology By Stephen Cade Hetherington Westview Press, 1996
The Theory of Knowledge: A Thematic Introduction By Dwayne H. Mulder; J. D. Trout; Paul K. Moser Oxford University Press, 1998
Theory of Knowledge: An Introduction By A. D. Woozley Hutchinson's University Library, 1949
Epistemology and Skepticism: An Enquiry into the Nature of Epistemology By George Chatalian Southern Illinois University Press, 1991
Social Epistemology: Essential Readings By Alvin I. Goldman; Dennis Whitcomb Oxford University Press, 2011
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Thomas Reid and the Story of Epistemology By Nicholas Wolterstorff Cambridge University Press, 2001
Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology By Earl Conee; Richard Feldman Clarendon Press, 2004
Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing By Barbara K. Hofer; Paul R. Pintrich Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002
Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility By Abrol Fairweather; Linda Zagzebski Oxford University Press, 2001
Bayesian Epistemology By Luc Bovens; Stephan Hartmann Clarendon Press, 2003
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