evil, antithesis of good. The philosophical problem of evil is most simply stated in the question, why does evil exist in the world? Death, disease, and sin are often included in the problem. Traditional Christian belief ascribes evil to the misdeeds of humans, to whom God has granted free will. The Christian systems that believe in predestination and justification by faith claim, like their Christian opponents, that God is still not the author of the evil men do. One explanation of evil is dualism, as in Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism. In optimism evil is treated often as more apparent than real. The book of Job is a literary treatment of the problem.

See R. Taylor, Good and Evil (1970); F. Sontag, The God of Evil (1970); R. Stivers, Evil in Modern Myth and Ritual (1982); D. Parkin, ed., The Anthropology of Evil (1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Evil: Selected full-text books and articles

On Evil By Thomas Aquinas; Richard Regan; Brian Davies Oxford University Press, 2003
Evil and the Augustinian Tradition By Charles T. Mathewes Cambridge University Press, 2001
Naming Evil, Judging Evil By Ruth W. Grant University of Chicago Press, 2006
What Evil Means to Us By C. Fred Alford Cornell University Press, 1997
The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil By Claudia Card Oxford University Press, 2002
On Evil By Adam Morton Routledge, 2004
Wickedness By Mary Midgley Routledge, 2001
Rethinking Evil: Contemporary Perspectives By María Pía Lara University of California Press, 2001
Good and Evil: An Absolute Conception By Raimond Gaita Routledge, 2004 (2nd edition)
Sartre and Evil: Guidelines for a Struggle By Haim Gordon; Rivca Gordon Greenwood Press, 1995
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