hermeneutics, the theory and practice of interpretation. During the Reformation hermeneutics came into being as a special discipline concerned with biblical criticism. The Protestant theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher expanded the discipline from one concerned with removing obstacles preventing readers from gaining the proper understanding of a text to one concerned in addition with analyzing the necessary conditions for readers coming to any understanding of a text. The philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey expanded the discipline still further by conceiving of all of the human and social sciences as hermeneutical enterprises and trying to construct a method uniquely for them, instead of borrowing one from the natural sciences. In the 20th cent. hermeneutics has been developed by the philosophers Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur.

See D. Hoy, The Critical Circle: Literature, History, and Philosophical Hermeneutics (1978); K. Mueller-Vollmer, ed., The Hermeneutics Reader (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Hermeneutics: Selected full-text books and articles

Hermeneutics: An Introduction By Anthony C. Thiselton William B. Eerdmans, 2009
Understanding Hermeneutics By Lawrence K. Schmidt Routledge, 2014
Hermeneutics: An Introduction to Interpretive Theory By Stanley E. Porter; Jason C. Robinson William B. Eerdmans, 2011
The Hermeneutic Tradition: From Ast to Ricoeur By Gayle L. Ormiston; Alan D. Schrift State University of New York Press, 1990
Gadamer's Repercussions: Reconsidering Philosophical Hermeneutics By Bruce Krajewski University of California Press, 2004
Hermeneutics and the Study of History By Wilhelm Dilthey; Rudolf A. Makkreel; Frithjof Rodi Princeton University Press, 1996
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Religion and the Hermeneutics of Contemplation By D. Z. Phillips Cambridge University Press, 2001
Friedrich Schleiermacher: Pioneer of Modern Theology By Friedrich Schleiermacher; Keith Clements Fortress Press, 1991
Hegel's Hermeneutics By Paul Redding Cornell University Press, 1996
On What We Have in Common: The Universality of Philosophical Hermeneutics By Wright, Kathleen Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, Vol. 56, No. 4, Summer 2004
Hermeneutics and the Heidegger = Schumpeter Theses By Shionoya, Yuichi The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 69, No. 1, January 2010
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
On the Polity of Experience: Towards a Hermeneutics of Attentiveness (1) By Davey, Nicholas Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, Vol. 56, No. 4, Summer 2004
The Very Idea of Radical Hermeneutics By Dooley, Mark The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 52, No. 4, June 1999
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