Deductive Reasoning


deduction, in logic, form of inference such that the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. For example, if we know that all men have two legs and that John is a man, it is then logical to deduce that John has two legs. Logicians contrast deduction with induction, in which the conclusion might be false even when the premises are true. Deduction has to do with necessity; induction has to do with probability. The famous Aristotelian syllogism is one species of deductive reasoning, which was greatly extended by the development of symbolic logic.

See R. J. Ackermann, Modern Deductive Logic (1971); P. J. Hurley A Concise Introduction to Logic (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Deductive Reasoning: Selected full-text books and articles

Deductive Reasoning and Strategies By Walter Schaeken; Gino De Vooght; André Vandierendonck; Géry D'Ydewalle Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000
An Introduction to Deductive Logic By Hugues Leblanc John Wiley & Sons, 1955
Deductive Logic By Warren Goldfarb Hackett, 2003
Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences By Alfred Tarski; Olaf Helmer-Hirschberg Oxford University Press, 1941 (Revised edition)
Reasoning, Necessity, and Logic: Developmental Perspectives By Willis F. Overton Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990
Librarian's tip: "A Theory of Deductive Reasoning" begins on p. 2
Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics By Carl Wellman Southern Illinois University Press, 1971
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "Deduction"
The Teaching of Thinking By Raymond S. Nickerson; David N. Perkins; Edward E. Smith Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985
Librarian's tip: "Errors in Deductive Reasoning" begins on p. 111
Cognitive Psychology and Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Research in Cognitive Science By Morton Wagman Praeger, 1993
Librarian's tip: "Deductive Reasoning" begins on p. 23
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