metaphysics (mĕtəfĬz´Ĭks), branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of existence. It perpetuates the Metaphysics of Aristotle, a collection of treatises placed after the Physics [Gr. metaphysics=after physics] and treating what Aristotle called the First Philosophy. The principal area of metaphysical speculation is generally called ontology and is the study of the ultimate nature of being. However, philosophical theology and cosmology are also usually considered branches of metaphysics. In the history of philosophy there have been many great metaphysical systems. One of the most carefully constructed systems is that of the scholastic philosophy (see scholasticism), which essentially is based on Aristotle's metaphysical system. In the 17th cent. the great rationalistic systems of René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, and G. W. von Leibniz were developed. They were followed in the 18th cent. by Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy, which demonstrated the impossibility of a scientific metaphysics. This was in turn succeeded by the metaphysics of German idealism (of J. G. Fichte, Friedrich von Schelling, and G. W. F. Hegel). Since the middle of the 19th cent. the dominant philosophical trend has been in the direction of positivism, which denies the validity of any metaphysical assertion. This is clearly reflected in the contemporary movement called logical positivism. A revival of interest in metaphysics since 1950 has been sparked by P. F. Strawson, whose descriptive metaphysics is an attempt not to construct a new metaphysical system but to analyze the metaphysical systems that already inform prevailing modes of thought.

See D. W. Hamlyn, Metaphysics (1984); B. Aune, Metaphysics (1985); D. H. Mellor, Matters of Metaphysics (1991).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Metaphysics: Selected full-text books and articles

An Introduction to Metaphysics By Henri Bergson; T. E. Hulme Hackett, 1999
Riddles of Existence: A Guided Tour of Metaphysics By Earl Conee; Theodore Sider Oxford University Press, 2007
Metaphysics By Peter Van Inwagen Westview Press, 1993
Writings on Logic and Metaphysics By F. H. Bradley; James W. Allard; Guy Stock Clarendon Press, 1994
The Nature of Metaphysics By D. F. Pears MacMillan, 1957
Leibniz's Metaphysics: Its Origins and Development By Christia Mercer Cambridge University Press, 2002
Nietzsche and Metaphysics By Peter Poellner Clarendon Press, 1995
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