phenomenology, modern school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl. Its influence extended throughout Europe and was particularly important to the early development of existentialism. Husserl attempted to develop a universal philosophic method, devoid of presuppositions, by focusing purely on phenomena and describing them; anything that could not be seen, and thus was not immediately given to the consciousness, was excluded. The concern was with what is known, not how it is known. The phenomenological method is thus neither the deductive method of logic nor the empirical method of the natural sciences; instead it consists in realizing the presence of an object and elucidating its meaning through intuition. Husserl considered the object of the phenomenological method to be the immediate seizure, in an act of vision, of the ideal intelligible content of the phenomenon. Notable members of the school have been Roman Ingarden, Max Scheler, Emmanuel Levinas, and Marvin Farber.

See E. Husserl, Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (tr. 1931, repr. 1989) and Cartesian Meditations (tr. 1960, repr. 1970); M. Farber, The Foundation of Phenomenology (1943, repr. 1967); R. Zanes, Way of Phenomenology (1970); M. A. Natanson, ed., Phenomenology and the Social Sciences (2 vol., 1973); H. Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement (1981); R. Grossman, Phenomenology and Existentialism (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Phenomenology: Selected full-text books and articles

What Is Phenomenology? And Other Essays
Pierre Thévenaz; James M. Edie; James M. Edie; Charles Courtney; Paul Brockelman.
Quadrangle Books, 1962
The Transcendence of the World: Phenomenological Studies
Richard Holmes.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1995
The Metamorphoses of Phenomenological Reduction
Jacques Taminiaux.
Marquette University Press, 2004
Four Phenomenological Philosophers: Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty
Christopher Macann.
Routledge, 1993
Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Husserl and the Cartesian Meditations
A. D. Smith.
Routledge, 2003
Post-cartesian Meditations: An Essay in Dialectical Phenomenology
James L. Marsh.
Fordham University Press, 1988
The Phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty: A Search for the Limits of Consciousness
Gary Brent Madison.
Ohio University Press, 1981
The Things of the World: A Social Phenomenology
James A. Aho.
Praeger, 1998
Pathways into the Jungian World: Phenomenology and Analytical Psychology
Roger Brooke.
Routledge, 2000
Radical Phenomenology, Ontology, and International Political Theory
Odysseos, Louiza.
Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 27, No. 3, July-September 2002
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Phenomenological Epistemology
Henry Pietersma.
Oxford University Press, 2000
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