phenomenology, modern school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl. Its influence extended throughout Europe and was particularly important to the early development of existentialism. Husserl attempted to develop a universal philosophic method, devoid of presuppositions, by focusing purely on phenomena and describing them; anything that could not be seen, and thus was not immediately given to the consciousness, was excluded. The concern was with what is known, not how it is known. The phenomenological method is thus neither the deductive method of logic nor the empirical method of the natural sciences; instead it consists in realizing the presence of an object and elucidating its meaning through intuition. Husserl considered the object of the phenomenological method to be the immediate seizure, in an act of vision, of the ideal intelligible content of the phenomenon. Notable members of the school have been Roman Ingarden, Max Scheler, Emmanuel Levinas, and Marvin Farber.

See E. Husserl, Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (tr. 1931, repr. 1989) and Cartesian Meditations (tr. 1960, repr. 1970); M. Farber, The Foundation of Phenomenology (1943, repr. 1967); R. Zanes, Way of Phenomenology (1970); M. A. Natanson, ed., Phenomenology and the Social Sciences (2 vol., 1973); H. Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement (1981); R. Grossman, Phenomenology and Existentialism (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Phenomenology: Selected full-text books and articles

What Is Phenomenology? And Other Essays By Pierre Thévenaz; James M. Edie; James M. Edie; Charles Courtney; Paul Brockelman Quadrangle Books, 1962
The Transcendence of the World: Phenomenological Studies By Richard Holmes Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1995
The Metamorphoses of Phenomenological Reduction By Jacques Taminiaux Marquette University Press, 2004
Radical Phenomenology, Ontology, and International Political Theory By Odysseos, Louiza Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 27, No. 3, July-September 2002
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Phenomenological Epistemology By Henry Pietersma Oxford University Press, 2000
Looking for a topic idea? Use Questia's Topic Generator
Author Advanced search


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.