Averroës (əvĕr´ōēz), Arabic Ibn Rushd, 1126–98, Spanish-Arab philosopher. He was far more important and influential in Jewish and Christian thought than in Islam. He was a lawyer and physician of Córdoba and lived for some time in Morocco in favor with the caliphs. He was banished for a period, probably for suspected heresy. Averroës's greatest work was his commentaries on Aristotle. The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle remained influential long after his death and was a matter of intellectual speculation well into the Renaissance. He attempted to delimit the separate domains of faith and reason, pointing out that the two need not be reconciled because they did not conflict. He declared philosophy the highest form of inquiry. He had the same Neoplatonic cast to his metaphysics as Avempace, to whom he was certainly indebted for his ideas on the intellect. Averroist doctrines on personal immortality and the eternity of matter were condemned by the Roman Catholic Church. St. Thomas Aquinas was respectful of Averroës, but he attacked the Averroist contention that philosophic truth is derived from reason and not from faith. See scholasticism. Averroës's works in English translation include Incoherence of the Incoherence, ed. by Simon Van Den Bergh (1955); On Aristotle's De Generatione et Corruptione, ed. by Samuel Kurland (1958); Commentary on Plato's Republic, ed. by E. I. J. Rosenthal (1956, repr. 1966); and On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy, ed. by G. F. Hourani (1961).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Averroes: Selected full-text books and articles

Averroes' Three Short Commentaries on Aristotle's "Topics," "Rhetoric," and "Poetics" By Averroees; Charles E. Butterworth State University of New York Press, 1977
The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present By Antony Black Edinburgh University Press, 2011 (2nd edition)
Librarian's tip: Chap. 11 "Ibn Rushd"
Medieval Islamic Economic Thought: Filling the Great Gap in European Economics By S. M. Ghazanfar RoutledgeCurzon, 2003
Librarian's tip: "Ibn Rushd (1126-98)" begins on p. 253
A History of Islamic Philosophy By Majid Fakhry Columbia University Press, 2004
Librarian's tip: "Ibn Rushd and the Defense of Aristotelianism" begins on p. 280
An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy By Oliver Leaman Cambridge University Press, 2002 (2nd edition)
Librarian's tip: "Averroes v. Al-Ghazali on the Creation of the World " begins on p. 55 and "Averroes and Aristotle " begins on p. 225
Medieval Philosophy By John Marenbon Routledge, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "Averroes"
Inquiries into Medieval Philosophy: A Collection in Honor of Francis P. Clarke By James F. Ross Greenwood Pub. Co., 1971
Librarian's tip: Chap. 11 "The Twice-Revealed Averroes"
Political Thought in Medieval Islam: An Introductory Outline By Erwin I. J. Rosenthal Cambridge University Press, 1968
Librarian's tip: Chap. IX "Ibn Rushd: The Consummation"
History of Philosophy: Eastern and Western By Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan; Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia; Dhirendra Mohan Datta; Humayun Kabir George Allen & Unwin, vol.2, 1953
Librarian's tip: "Ibn Rushd [Averroes] (A.D. 1126-1198)" begins on p. 144
Fifty Eastern Thinkers By Diané Collinson; Kathryn Plant; Robert Wilkinson Routledge, 2000
Librarian's tip: "Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 1126-1198" begins on p. 43
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