Chu Hsi

Chu Hsi (jōō shē), 1130–1200, Chinese philosopher of Neo-Confucianism. While borrowing heavily from Buddhism, his new metaphysics reinvigorated Confucianism. According to Chu Hsi, the normative principle of human nature is pure and good. Expressed in concrete form human nature is less than perfect, but it can be refined through self-cultivation based on study of the classics. His thought was orthodox during the Yüan, Ming, and Ch'ing dynasties. For 600 years students memorized his classical commentaries until the Chinese examination system was abolished in 1905.

See studies by W.-T. Chan (1987, 1989).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Chu Hsi: Selected full-text books and articles

The Religious Thought of Chu Hsi By Julia Ching Oxford University Press, 2000
A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant By Ben-Ami Scharfstein State University of New York Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 9 "Religio-Philosophical Synthesis: Udayana, Chu Hsi, Avicenna, Maimonides, Aquinas"
Transformations of the Confucian Way By John H. Berthrong Westview Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: "Chu Hsi: The Grand Southern Sung Synthesis" begins on p. 108
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