Proclus (prō´kləs), 410?–485, Neoplatonic philosopher, b. Constantinople. He studied at Alexandria and at Athens, where he was a pupil of the Platonist Syrianus, whom he succeeded as a teacher. As a partisan of paganism he was forced to leave Athens, but he returned at the end of a year. A synthesizer of Neoplatonic doctrines, Proclus gave the philosophy its most systematic form. He kept the elements of Plotinus, but introduced a principle of triadic development in the series of emanations; the three stages are an original, an emergence from the original, and a return in a lower form to the original. Proclus differed from Plotinus in regard to the origin of matter, which he held to emerge from the first emanation rather than from the plastic forces. Among his writings are commentaries on several Platonic dialogues and two treatises, On Plato's Theology and Institutes of Theology. See Neoplatonism.

See Fragments of the Lost Writings of Proclus (ed. by R. Navon, tr. by T. Taylor, 1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Proclus: Selected full-text books and articles

The Neo-Platonists: A Study in the History of Hellenism By Thomas Whittaker Cambridge University Press, 1928 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Ch. IX "The Athenian School - Proclus"
Pythagoras Revived: Mathematics and Philosophy in Late Antiquity By Dominic J. O'Meara Clarendon Press, 1990
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Proclus: Some Preliminary Issues" and Chap. 8 "Proclus on Mathematics"
Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin Tradition By Stephen Gersh; Ralph McInerny University of Notre Dame Press, vol.2, 1986
Librarian’s tip: "The Influence of Lamblichus, Syrianus, and Proclus" begins on p. 701
God in Himself: Aquinas' Doctrine of God as Expounded in the Summa Theologiae By W. J. Hankey Oxford University Press, 1987
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Proclus in multiple chapters
Philosophical Studies By A. E. Taylor Macmillan and Co., 1934
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IV "The Philosophy of Proclus"
Ethics and Rhetoric: Classical Essays for Donald Russell on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday By D. A. Russell; Doreen Innes; Harry Hine; Christopher Pelling Oxford University, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 27 "Phantasia and Analogia in Proclus"
Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought By R. J. Hankinson Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Proclus" begins on p. 429
The Physical World of Late Antiquity By S. Sambursky Basic Books, 1962
Librarian’s tip: "Proclus and the Ptolemaic System" begins on p. 145
Renaissance Philosophy By Charles B. Schmitt; Brian P. Copenhaver Oxford University Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Proclus in multiple chapters
The Anatomy of Neoplatonism By A. C. Lloyd Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Proclus' Comparison of Aristotelian and Parmenidean Logic" begins on p. 11 and "Proclus' Aversion from Dualism" begins on p. 107
Philosophy in Late Antiquity By Andrew Smith Routledge, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Proclus in multiple chapters
Lectures on the History of Philosophy By Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel; E. S. Haldane; Frances H. Simson University of Nebraska Press, vol.2, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "Proclus" begins on p. 432
Ancient Mathematics By S. Cuomo Routledge, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of Proclus in multiple chapters
A History of Ancient Philosophy: From the Beginnings to Augustine By Karsten Friis Johansen Routledge, 1998
Librarian’s tip: "Porphyry, Iamblichus,and Proclus" begins on p. 558
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