materialism, in philosophy, a widely held system of thought that explains the nature of the world as entirely dependent on matter, the fundamental and final reality beyond which nothing need be sought. Certain periods in history, usually those associated with scientific advance, are marked by strong materialistic tendencies. The doctrine was formulated as early as the 4th cent. BC by Democritus, in whose system of atomism all phenomena are explained by atoms and their motions in space. Other early Greek teaching, such as that of Epicurus and Stoicism, also conceived of reality as material in its nature. The theory was later renewed in the 17th cent. by Pierre Gassendi and Thomas Hobbes, who believed that the sphere of consciousness essentially belongs to the corporeal world, or the senses. The investigations of John Locke were adapted to materialist positions by David Hartley and Joseph Priestley. They were a part of the materialist development of the 18th cent., strongly manifested in France, where the most extreme thought was that of Julien de La Mettrie. The culminating expression of materialist thought in this period was the Système de la nature (1770), for which Baron d'Holbach is considered chiefly responsible. A reaction against materialism was felt in the later years of the 18th cent., but the middle of the 19th cent. brought a new movement, largely psychological in interpretation. Two of the modern developments of materialism are dialectical materialism and physicalism, a position formulated by some members of the Logical Positivist movement. Closely related to materialism in origin are naturalism and sensualism.

See D. M. Armstrong, Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); P. M. Churchland, Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of the Mind (1979) and Matter and Consciousness (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Materialism: Selected full-text books and articles

The Materialist Conception of History: A Critical Analysis
Karl Federn.
MacMillan, 1939
Contemporary Materialism: A Reader
Paul K. Moser; J. D. Trout.
Routledge, 1995
Historical Materialism
V. G. Afansayev.
International Publishers, 1987 (Revised edition)
On Historical Materialism
Frederick Engels.
International Publishers, 1940
The Hunting of Leviathan: Seventeenth-Century Reactions to the Materialism and Moral Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
Samuel I. Mintz.
Cambridge University Press, 1970
Locke and French Materialism
John W. Yolton.
Clarendon Press, 1991
The Philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre
Paul Arthur Schilpp.
Open Court, 1981
Mind and Materialism
Geoffrey Madell.
Edinburgh University Press, 1988
Literature and Dialectical Materialism
John Strachey.
Covici Friede Publishers, 1934
Ecology and Historical Materialism
Jonathan Hughes.
Cambridge University Press, 2000
Soviet Russian Dialectical Materialism (Diamat)
J. M. Bochenski.
D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1963
The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism
Louis Dupré.
Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Marx's Historical Materialism: The German Ideology," Chap. 7 "Applications of Historical Materialism," and Chap. 8 "A Critique of Historical Materialism"
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy
Ted Honderich.
Oxford University Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "Materialism" begins on p. 530
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