Economic Sanctions

sanction

sanction, in law and ethics, any inducement to individuals or groups to follow or refrain from following a particular course of conduct. All societies impose sanctions on their members in order to encourage approved behavior. These sanctions range from formal legal statutes to informal and customary actions taken by the general membership in response to social behavior. A sanction may be either positive, i.e., the promise of reward for desired conduct, or negative, i.e., the threat of penalty for disapproved conduct, but the term is most commonly used in the negative sense. This is particularly true of the sanctions employed in international relations. These are usually economic, taking the form of an embargo or boycott, but may also involve military action.

Under its covenant, the League of Nations was empowered to initiate sanctions against any nation resorting to war in violation of the covenant. Its declaration of an embargo against Paraguay (1934) derived from this power. Economic sanctions were applied against Italy during its invasion of Ethiopia (1935) in the League's most famous, and notably ineffective, use of its power.

The United Nations, under its charter, also has the power to impose sanctions against any nation declared a threat to the peace or an aggressor. Once sanctions are imposed they are binding upon all UN members. However, the requirement that over half of the total membership of the Security Council and all five permanent members agree on the decision to effect a sanction greatly limits the actual use of that power. UN military forces were sent to aid South Korea in 1950, and in the 60s economic sanctions were applied against South Africa and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In the 1990s economic sanctions were imposed on Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait, and the Security Council approved the use of force to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Sanctions were also imposed on the former Yugoslavia as a result of the Bosnian civil war and Kosovo crisis.

See R. Arens and H. Lasswell, In Defense of Public Order (1961); R. Segal, ed., Sanctions Against South Africa (1964); M. P. Doxey, Economic Sanctions and International Enforcement (1971) and International Sanctions in Contemporary Perspective (1987); D. Leyton-Brown, ed., The Utility of International Economic Sanctions (1987).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Economic Sanctions: Selected full-text books and articles

Economic Sanctions: Examining Their Philosophy and Efficacy
Hossein G. Askari; John Forrer; Hildy Teegen; Jiawen Yang.
Praeger, 2003
International Sanctions: Between Words and Wars in the Global System
Peter Wallensteen; Carina Staibano.
Routledge, 2005
Overview and Operation of U.S. Financial Sanctions, Including the Example of Iran
Carter, Barry E.; Farha, Ryan M.
Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 44, No. 3, Spring 2013
Sanctions, Sanctions Everywhere: Forging a Path through Complex Transnational Sanctions Laws
Rathbone, Meredith; Jeydel, Peter; Lentz, Amy.
Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 44, No. 3, Spring 2013
National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions: A Comparative Study
Vera Gowlland-Debbas.
Brill, 2004
A Practical Guide to International Sanctions Law and Lore: Mamas, Don't Let Your Children Grow Up to Be Sanctions Lawyers
Culvahouse, Arthur B., Jr.
Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer 2010
Pariah States & Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya, Sudan
Tim Niblock.
Lynne Rienner, 2001
Effective Sanctions: Incentives and UN-US Dynamics
Lopez, George A.
Harvard International Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 2007
Smart Sanctions Revisited
Gordon, Joy.
Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3, Fall 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Economic Sanctions, Humanitarianism, and Conflict after the Cold War
Garfield, Richard.
Social Justice, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Iraq's Burdens: Oil, Sanctions, and Underdevelopment
Abbas Alnasrawi.
Greenwood Press, 2002
Reflections on the Sanctions Decade and Beyond
Doxey, Margaret.
International Journal, Vol. 64, No. 2, Spring 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
UN Tightens North Korea Sanctions
Crail, Peter.
Arms Control Today, Vol. 39, No. 6, July/August 2009
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