Human Rights

human rights, universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth. Conceptually derived from the theory of natural law and originating in Greco-Roman doctrines, the idea of human rights appears in some early Christian writers' works and is reflected in the Magna Carta (1215). The concept winds as a philosophical thread through 17th- and 18th-century European and American thought, including the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789). The United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chair, created the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which reasserted the concept of human rights after the horrors of World War II. Human rights have since become a universally espoused yet widely disregarded concept.

Organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch promote human rights and denounce human-rights abuses. In addition, such abuses around the world are monitored and documented by independent investigators ( "special rapporteurs" ) appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, which, in turn, rebukes cited nations for their human-rights failures. (The council replaced the UN Human Rights Commission, which had been accused of protecting human-rights violators, in mid-2006; similar accusations have been leveled at the new council.) In Europe, the supranational European Court of Human Rights, established under the Council of Europe, is intended to protect individual human rights from government abuse.

The charging in 1998 by a Spanish court of former Chilean president Augusto Pinochet with human-rights violations and the 1999 British ruling that he could be extradited to Spain, as well as the indictment and arrest (2000) in Senegal of former Chadian president Hissène Habré for human-rights violations during his presidency (although charges were later dropped, he was subsequently rearrested on a Belgian warrant), were regarded as small steps forward in the international protection of human rights.

See also civil rights; feminism; gay-rights movement; war crimes.

See M. A. Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2001); A. Fagan, The Atlas of Human Rights (2010); S. Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (2010); A. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Human Rights: Selected full-text books and articles

International Human Rights
Jack Donnelly.
Westview Press, 2013 (4th edition)
The International Human Rights Movement: A History
Aryeh Neier.
Princeton University Press, 2012
The Moral Dimensions of Human Rights
Carl Wellman.
Oxford University Press, 2011
Global Good Samaritans: Human Rights as Foreign Policy
Alison Brysk.
Oxford University Press, 2009
Human Rights for the 21st Century: Sovereignty, Civil Society, Culture
Helen M. Stacy.
Stanford University Press, 2009
Human Rights: The Essential Reference
Carol Devine; Carol Rae Hansen; Ralph Wilde; Hilary Poole.
Oryx Press, 1999
Encyclopedia of Human Rights Issues since 1945
Winston E. Langley.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Human Rights, Legitimacy, and the Use of Force
Allen Buchanan.
Oxford University Press, 2010
A UN High Commissioner in Defence of Human Rights: "No License to Kill or Torture"
Bertrand Ramcharan.
Martinus Nijhoff, 2005
The Globalization of Human Rights
Jean-Marc Coicaud; Michael W. Doyle; Anne-Marie Gardner.
United Nations University Press, 2003
A People's History of the European Court of Human Rights
Michael D. Goldhaber.
Rutgers University Press, 2007
International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
René Provost.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law
Jenny S. Martinez.
Oxford University Press, 2012
Surrendering to Utopia: An Anthropology of Human Rights
Mark Goodale.
Stanford University Press, 2009
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