History of Voting


voting, method of registering collective approval or disapproval of a person or a proposal. The term generally refers to the process by which citizens choose candidates for public office or decide political questions submitted to them. However, it may also describe the formal recording of opinion of a group on any subject. In either sense it is a means of transforming numerous individual desires into a coherent and collective basis for decision.

In early human history voting was simply the communication of approval or disapproval by tribal members of certain proposals offered by a chieftain, who typically held an elected office. Eventually in political voting, the ballot came into use, a sophisticated form of which is the voting machine. In modern democracies voting is generally considered the right of all adult citizens. In the past, however, voting was often a privilege limited by stringent property qualifications and restricted to the upper classes, and it is only in recent times that universal suffrage has become a fact. In the United States this was accomplished in 1920 when women were given the right to vote by the Nineteenth Amendment, but many African Americans in the South continued to be denied voting rights into the 1960s (see integration). While in democracies voting is, generally, a voluntary right, in totalitarian systems it is virtually a compulsory duty, and nonvoting may be considered an act of disapproval of government policies.

In recent years a great deal of study has been devoted to the analysis of voting behavior in nonauthoritarian nations. Through the use of complex sampling surveys attempts have been made to determine on what basis a voter makes a decision. Findings reveal that voting is influenced not only by political differences but also by religious, racial, and economic factors. For this reason nearly all politicians rely on a sampling survey, or poll, to gauge the attitudes of their constituencies. Also a subject for considerable study in the United States is that large segment of the population that refrains from voting. Research has shown that nonvoting is caused by factors that include social cross pressures, new residency in the community, and relative political ignorance or lack of interest.

See also election; referendum.

See G. Almond and S. Verba, The Civic Culture (1963); A. Campbell et al., The American Voter (1960); R. Lane, Political Life (1959); L. Milbraith, Political Participation (1965); R. Farquharson, The Theory of Voting (1969); F. Greenstein, The American Party System and the American People (2d ed. 1970).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

History of Voting: Selected full-text books and articles

The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States
Alexander Keyssar.
Basic Books, 2000
Electronic Elections: The Perils and Promises of Digital Democracy
R. Michael Alvarez; Thad E. Hall.
Princeton University Press, 2008
Voting Rites: The Devolution of American Politics
Ron Hirschbein.
Praeger, 1999
Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983
Richard J. Jensen; Steven L. Piott; Christopher C. Gibbs.
Greenwood Press, 1983
The Third Electoral System 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures
Paul Kleppner.
University of North Carolina Press, 1979
Youth's Battle for the Ballot: A History of Voting Age in America
Wendell W. Cultice.
Greenwood Press, 1992
Political Ideology and Voting Behavior in the Age of Jackson
Joel H. Silbey.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973
A Unified Theory of Voting: Directional and Proximity Spatial Models
Samuel Merrill Iii; Bernard Grofman.
Cambridge University Press, 1999
Why Americans Don't Vote: Turnout Decline in the United States, 1960-1984
Ruy A. Teixeira.
Greenwood Press, 1987
Colorblind Injustice: Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction
J. Morgan Kousser.
University of North Carolina Press, 1999
Images of Voting/Visions of Democracy
Peter B. Natchez.
Basic Books, 1985
The European Union and E-Voting: Addressing the European Parliament's Internet Voting Challenge
Alexander H. Trechsel; Fernando Mendez.
Routledge, 2004
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