pluralism, in philosophy, theory that considers the universe explicable in terms of many principles or composed of many ultimate substances. It describes no particular system and may be embodied in such opposed philosophical concepts as materialism and idealism. Empedocles, G. W. von Leibniz, William James, and Bertrand Russell are among the philosophers generally considered as pluralistic. See also monism and dualism.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Pluralism: Selected full-text books and articles

Pluralism: Against the Demand for Consensus By Nicholas Rescher Clarendon Press, 1993
Rethinking Pluralism: Ritual, Experience, and Ambiguity By Adam B. Seligman; Robert P. Weller Oxford University Press, 2012
Paradigms Regained: Pluralism and the Practice of Criticism By James L. Battersby University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991
The Challenge of Pluralism: Education, Politics, and Values By F. Clark Power; Daniel K. Lapsley University of Notre Dame Press, 1992
Plural and Conflicting Values By Michael Stocker Oxford University Press, 1989
The Morality of Pluralism By John Kekes Princeton University Press, 1993
The Culture of Religious Pluralism By Richard E. Wentz Westview Press, 1998
Strategies for Promoting Pluralism in Education and the Workplace By Lynne Brodie Welch; Betty Jane Cleckley; Marilyn McClure Praeger, 1997
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