Green Politics

Green party

Green party, any of the political parties established in various countries to oppose the destructive environmental effects of many modern technologies and the economic systems and institutions that drive them. Many Green parties also advocate pacifism and strongly support human rights; the parties are typically grassroots leftist in their political orientation.

There are numerous Green parties in Europe. In 2003 the European Federation of Green Parties established the European Green party, in part in order to campaign on a common platform in EU elections; 50 parties are now members of the European Green party. The German Green party, founded in West Germany in 1979, had some political successes in the 1980s and merged with a group from the former East Germany in 1993. In 1994 it outpolled the Free Democrats, previously Germany's third largest party; it again was the third largest party in 1998, when it first entered the government in a sometimes strained coalition with the Social Democrats, and in 2002, when it also became part of the governing coalition. Subsequently, it has not been in a national government or placed as high, relatively speaking, though it has continued to win roughly the same number of seats or more. Green parties in several other European nations have been part of coalition governments including in France (1997–2002, 2012–14), the Irish Republic (2007–11), and Iceland (2017–).

A U.S. group has existed since 1973; the Green party of the United States was officially formed in 2001 from the Association of State Green Parties. There are 43 state organizations affiliated with the national confederation. Ralph Nader was the Green party's presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000, and in the latter election the party garnered the largest vote (2.6%) of any U.S. third party. In subsequent presidential campaigns the party's candidates have been much less successful.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Green Politics: Selected full-text books and articles

Green Political Thought By Andrew Dobson Routledge, 2000 (3rd edition)
Green Politics One: 1990 By Wolfgang Rüdig Southern Illinois University Press, 1990
Green Politics Two By Wolfgang Rüdig Edinburgh University Press, 1991
Green Politics: Dictatorship or Democracy? By James Radcliffe St. Martin's Press, 2000
The German Greens: Challenging the Consensus By Thomas Scharf Berg Publishers Ltd., 1994
Green Revolutions? the Role of Green Parties in Eastern Europe's Transition, 1989-1994 By Frankland, Erich G East European Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3, Fall 1995
Political Parties and the European Union By John Gaffney Routledge, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 15 "Green Parties and the European Union"
Green Power: The Environment Movement in Australia By Timothy Doyle University of New South Wales Press, 2000
Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens By Greta S. Gaard Temple University Press, 1998
Living with Nature: Environmental Politics as Cultural Discourse By Frank Fischer; Maarten A. Hajer Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 9 "Images of Place in Green Politics: The Cultural Mirror of Indigenous Traditions"
Earth First! and the Anti-Roads Movement: Radical Environmentalism and Comparative Social Movements By Derek Wall Routledge, 1999
Librarian's tip: Includes discussion of green politics in multiple chapters
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