German Green Party

Green party

Green party, any of the political parties established in various countries to oppose the destructive environmental effects of many modern technologies and the economic systems and institutions that drive them. Many Green parties also advocate pacifism and strongly support human rights; the parties are typically grassroots leftist in their political orientation.

There are numerous Green parties in Europe. In 2003 the European Federation of Green Parties established the European Green party, in part in order to campaign on a common platform in EU elections; 50 parties are now members of the European Green party. The German Green party, founded in West Germany in 1979, had some political successes in the 1980s and merged with a group from the former East Germany in 1993. In 1994 it outpolled the Free Democrats, previously Germany's third largest party; it again was the third largest party in 1998, when it first entered the government in a sometimes strained coalition with the Social Democrats, and in 2002, when it also became part of the governing coalition. Subsequently, it has not been in a national government or placed as high, relatively speaking, though it has continued to win roughly the same number of seats or more. Green parties in several other European nations have been part of coalition governments including in France (1997–2002, 2012–14), the Irish Republic (2007–11), and Iceland (2017–).

A U.S. group has existed since 1973; the Green party of the United States was officially formed in 2001 from the Association of State Green Parties. There are 43 state organizations affiliated with the national confederation. Ralph Nader was the Green party's presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000, and in the latter election the party garnered the largest vote (2.6%) of any U.S. third party. In subsequent presidential campaigns the party's candidates have been much less successful.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

German Green Party: Selected full-text books and articles

The German Greens: Challenging the Consensus By Thomas Scharf Berg Publishers Ltd., 1994
Germany's New Politics: Parties and Issues in the 1990s By David P. Conradt; Gerald R. Kleinfeld; George K. Romoser; Christian Søe Berghahn Books, 1995
Green Politics One: 1990 By Wolfgang Rüdig Southern Illinois University Press, 1990
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "Party Activists versus Voters: Are the German Greens Losing Touch with the Electorate?"
Transformation of the German Political Party System: Institutional Crisis or Democratic Renewal? By Christopher S. Allen Berghahn Books, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Green Trumps Red? Political Identity and Left-Wing Politics in United Germany"
Letter from Berlin By Hockenos, Paul The Nation, Vol. 273, No. 13, October 29, 2001
Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany By Ludger Helms Macmillan Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Includes discussion of the German Green Party in multiple chapters
Democracy from Below: New Social Movements and the Political System in West Germany By Ruud Koopmans Westview Press, 1995
Librarian's tip: Includes discussion of the German Green Party in multiple chapters
Die Grunen and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict By Humphreys, Andrea The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 50, No. 3, September 2004
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