Dialectical Materialism

dialectical materialism, official philosophy of Communism, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, as elaborated by G. V. Plekhanov, V. I. Lenin, and Joseph Stalin. In theory dialectical materialism is meant to provide both a general world view and a specific method for the investigation of scientific problems. The basic tenets are that everything is material and that change takes place through "the struggle of opposites." Because everything contains different elements that are in opposition, "self-movement" automatically occurs; the conflict of opposing forces leads to growth, change, and development, according to definite laws. Communist scientists were expected to fit their investigations into this pattern, and official approval of scientific theories in the USSR was determined to some extent by their conformity to dialectical materialism (see Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich). Use of these principles in history and sociology is sometimes called historical materialism. Under these doctrines the social, political, and intellectual life of society reflect only the economic structure, since human beings create the forms of social life solely in response to economic needs. Men are divided into classes by their relations to the means of production—land and capital. The class that controls the means of production inevitably exploits the other classes in society; it is this class struggle that produces the dynamic of history and is the source of progress toward a final uniformity. Historical materialism is deterministic; that is, it prescribes that history inevitably follows certain laws and that individuals have little or no influence on its development. Central to historical materialism is the belief that change takes place through the meeting of two opposing forces (thesis and antithesis); their opposition is resolved by combination produced by a higher force (synthesis). Historical materialism has had many advocates outside the Communist world.

See G. Wetter, Dialectical Materialism (1958, repr. 1973); A. Spirkin, Dialectical Materialism (1983); I. Yurkovets, Philosophy of Dialectical Materialism (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Dialectical Materialism: Selected full-text books and articles

Soviet Russian Dialectical Materialism (Diamat) By J. M. Bochenski D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1963
Mao Zedong on Dialectical Materialism: Writings on Philosophy, 1937 By Mao Tse-tung; Nick Knight M. E. Sharpe, 1990
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Literature and Dialectical Materialism By John Strachey Covici Friede Publishers, 1934
Historical Materialism By V. G. Afansayev International Publishers, 1987 (Revised edition)
The Meaning of Dialectics By Ollman, Bertell Monthly Review, Vol. 38, November 1986
A History of Political Theory By George H. Sabine Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1961 (3rd edition)
The Development of the Monist View of History By G. Plekhanov Foreign Languages Pub. House, 1956
Dialectical Materialism in Internet Era By Pan, Yang Cross - Cultural Communication, Vol. 11, No. 3, May 1, 2015
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