Dialectical Materialism

dialectical materialism, official philosophy of Communism, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, as elaborated by G. V. Plekhanov, V. I. Lenin, and Joseph Stalin. In theory dialectical materialism is meant to provide both a general world view and a specific method for the investigation of scientific problems. The basic tenets are that everything is material and that change takes place through "the struggle of opposites." Because everything contains different elements that are in opposition, "self-movement" automatically occurs; the conflict of opposing forces leads to growth, change, and development, according to definite laws. Communist scientists were expected to fit their investigations into this pattern, and official approval of scientific theories in the USSR was determined to some extent by their conformity to dialectical materialism (see Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich). Use of these principles in history and sociology is sometimes called historical materialism. Under these doctrines the social, political, and intellectual life of society reflect only the economic structure, since human beings create the forms of social life solely in response to economic needs. Men are divided into classes by their relations to the means of production—land and capital. The class that controls the means of production inevitably exploits the other classes in society; it is this class struggle that produces the dynamic of history and is the source of progress toward a final uniformity. Historical materialism is deterministic; that is, it prescribes that history inevitably follows certain laws and that individuals have little or no influence on its development. Central to historical materialism is the belief that change takes place through the meeting of two opposing forces (thesis and antithesis); their opposition is resolved by combination produced by a higher force (synthesis). Historical materialism has had many advocates outside the Communist world.

See G. Wetter, Dialectical Materialism (1958, repr. 1973); A. Spirkin, Dialectical Materialism (1983); I. Yurkovets, Philosophy of Dialectical Materialism (1984).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Dialectical Materialism: Selected full-text books and articles

Soviet Russian Dialectical Materialism (Diamat) By J. M. Bochenski D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1963
Science and Philosophy in the Soviet Union By Loren R. Graham Knopf, 1972
Librarian’s tip: Chap. II "Dialectical Materialism: The Soviet Marxist Philosophy of Science"
Literature and Dialectical Materialism By John Strachey Covici Friede Publishers, 1934
Historical Materialism By V. G. Afansayev International Publishers, 1987 (Revised edition)
Marxism, for and Against By Robert L. Heilbroner W. W. Norton, 1980
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Two "The Dialectical Approach to Philosophy" and Chap. Three "The Materialist Interpretation of History"
The Meaning of Dialectics By Ollman, Bertell Monthly Review, Vol. 38, November 1986
The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism By Louis Dupré Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Marx's Historical Materialism: The German Ideology," Chap. 7 "Applications of Historical Materialism," and Chap. 8 "A Critique of Historical Materialism"
Fundamental Problems of Marxism By George V. Plekhanov International Publishers, 1969
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IV "Emergence of Historical Materialism" and Chap. V "The Materialist Dialectic as Method"
A History of Political Theory By George H. Sabine Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1961 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 33 "Marx and Dialectical Materialism"
The Development of the Monist View of History By G. Plekhanov Foreign Languages Pub. House, 1956
Existential Marxism in Postwar France: From Sartre to Althusser By Mark Poster Princeton University Press, 1975
Librarian’s tip: Chap. I "Neither Idealism nor Materialism"
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