conscience, sense of moral awareness or of right and wrong. The concept has been variously explained by moralists and philosophers. In the history of ethics, the conscience has been looked upon as the will of a divine power expressing itself in man's judgments, an innate sense of right and wrong resulting from man's unity with the universe, an inherited intuitive sense evolved in the long history of the human race, and a set of values derived from the experience of the individual. Psychologists also differ in their analyses of the nature of conscience. It is variously believed to be an expression of values differing from other expressions of value only in the subject matter involved, a feeling of guilt for known or unknown actions done or not done, the manifestation of a special set of values introjected from the example and instruction of parents and teachers, and the value structure that essentially defines the personality of the individual. As a practical matter, the consciences of different people within a society or from different societies may vary widely.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Conscience: Selected full-text books and articles

FREE! Is Conscience an Emotion? Three Lectures on Recent Ethical Theories
Hastings Rashdall.
Houghton Mifflin, 1914
Morality, Religious and Secular: The Dilemma of the Traditional Conscience
Basil Mitchell.
Clarendon Press, 1980
Conscience on Campus: An Interpretation of Christian Ethics for College Life
Waldo Beach.
Association Press, 1958
The Conscience of the Campus: Case Studies in Moral Reasoning among Today's College Students
Joseph Dillon Davey; Linda Dubois Davey.
Praeger, 2001
War and the Christian Conscience: How Shall Modern War Be Conducted Justly?
Paul Ramsey.
Duke University Press, 1961
War and the Illiberal Conscience
Christopher Coker.
Westview Press, 1998
The Unitarian Conscience: Harvard Moral Philosophy, 1805-1861
Daniel Walker Howe.
Wesleyan University Press, 1988
Conscience in the New Testament: A Study of Syneidesis in the New Testament, in the Light of Its Sources and with Particular Reference to St. Paul, with Some Observations regarding Its Pastoral Relevance Today
C. A. Pierce.
SCM Press, 1955
Short Route to Chaos: Conscience, Community, and the Re-Constitution of American Schooling
Stephen Arons.
University of Massachusetts Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Six "Conscience and Community"
Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust
Victoria J. Barnett.
Praeger, 1999
The Social Conscience of the Early Victorians
F. David Roberts.
Stanford University Press, 2002
Medusa's Gaze: Casuistry and Conscience in the Renaissance
Lowell Gallagher.
Stanford University, 1991
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