conscience, sense of moral awareness or of right and wrong. The concept has been variously explained by moralists and philosophers. In the history of ethics, the conscience has been looked upon as the will of a divine power expressing itself in man's judgments, an innate sense of right and wrong resulting from man's unity with the universe, an inherited intuitive sense evolved in the long history of the human race, and a set of values derived from the experience of the individual. Psychologists also differ in their analyses of the nature of conscience. It is variously believed to be an expression of values differing from other expressions of value only in the subject matter involved, a feeling of guilt for known or unknown actions done or not done, the manifestation of a special set of values introjected from the example and instruction of parents and teachers, and the value structure that essentially defines the personality of the individual. As a practical matter, the consciences of different people within a society or from different societies may vary widely.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Conscience: Selected full-text books and articles

War and the Illiberal Conscience By Christopher Coker Westview Press, 1998
The Unitarian Conscience: Harvard Moral Philosophy, 1805-1861 By Daniel Walker Howe Wesleyan University Press, 1988
Short Route to Chaos: Conscience, Community, and the Re-Constitution of American Schooling By Stephen Arons University of Massachusetts Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Six "Conscience and Community"
The Social Conscience of the Early Victorians By F. David Roberts Stanford University Press, 2002
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